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water chemistry Applications

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Plating rinse wastewater solution

    Plating rinse wastewater is one of the most common applications for ENCON Wastewater Evaporators. Wastewater from plating rinse tends to be rather corrosive. The chemistries used in the plating process can include a wide range of acids such as nitric acid, chromic acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, as well as other non-acid chemistries like ammonium bifluoride and nickel sulfamate. Typically, the waste stream has a transparent, relatively clean look because they are dilute and the contaminants are in solution.

    By ENCON Evaporators based in Hooksett, NEW HAMPSHIRE (USA).

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Biomass Industry

    Flue gas particulate and acid gases from biomass and bagasse boilers. Removal of ethanol, CO2 scrubbers and yeast cells from fermenters.  Removal of ash particulate, tars, acid gases and ammonia from steam reformers, gasifiers, pyrolosis units and cooling of syngas streams to acceptable limits to enable use as a fuel source for power generation or as a feedstock for chemical products. For tar removal, combination technologies can be used including oil based scrubbing solutions to reduce waste water generation. Ethanol and yeast cell removal from fermenter off-gases. Methanol from processing operations. Hydrogen sulfide removal on landfill, digester and producer gases with regenerable chemistries. Odor control for biomass storage facilities including carbon monoxide removal in wood chip storage areas. 

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

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    Determination of Additives in Beverages using Ascentis Express Columns

    Beverages, such as sodas and energy drinks, can include a number of polar ingredients, which are easily soluble in the water matrix of the drinks. These ingredients include sweeteners (sugars and sugar substitutes), caffeine, vitamin supplements, amino acids, organic acids, and plant extracts. Because the analytes are already in solution, there is no need for extensive sample preparation. Dilution followed by direct injection into an HPLC is typically suitable. In this article we present two beverage applications using Ascentis Express HPLC columns. Ascentis Express columns offer faster HPLC on any system. One benefit is their ability to produce the resolution, efficiency, and speed on conventional HPLC systems that is associated with the use of sub-2 micron columns on a UHPLC system, without generating high backpressure. Column chemistries (RP-Amide and HILIC) were selected for this article based on their enhanced performance with polar compounds in comparison to C18.

    By Sigma-Aldrich Co., LLC based in Bellefonte, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

  • Secondary disinfection treatment for commercial & institutional

    Waterborne illness from microbial growth in water distribution systems is a real threat to water safety. MIOX’s patented Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS) chemistry for secondary disinfection can help eradicate biofilm that can harbor Legionella and other microorganisms without the use of Chlorine Dioxide. MIOX generators improve workplace safety by eliminating the handling and storage of hazardous chemicals while maintaining steady disinfection residuals.

    By MIOX Corporation based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

  • Enhanced oil recovery treatment for oil and gas industry

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a broad O&G Industry term, but almost always involves some kind of water treatment processes. Whether you are trying to increase injectivity, kill bacteria, break emulsions or destroy polymers, MIOX has equipment to help. MIOX’s exclusive Mixed Oxidant technology turns your EOR site into an on-demand chemistry factory - eliminating middle men and lowering costs.

    By MIOX Corporation based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

  • Analytical services for mining industry

    Maxxam provides the mining industry with comprehensive analytical testing services including water, soil and air quality parameters. Analytical testing ranges from metal leaching and acid rock drainage, to Ecotoxicology services and environmental chemistry. We are accredited for specific analytical tests related to mining test regulations and requirements. Along with being accredited for tests such as environmental chemistry and acid mine drainage, below is an excerpt of the laboratory’s current scope of accreditations:

    By Maxxam Analytics based in Mississauga, ONTARIO (CANADA).

  • In-Situ Soil & Groundwater Remediation

    The use of H2O2 to chemically oxidize the contaminants into mineralized products (CO2 , salts, and readily biodegradable organic fragments) offers a number of advantages over these current treatment methods. Benefits of Soil Decontamination by Chemical Oxidation: The reagent used (H2O2) is inexpensive, readily available, and has as its reaction products water and oxygen; The chemistry of the process (Fenton's Reagent) has been known for over 50 years and its applicability to a wide variety of contaminants is well documented; The process is easily applied and controlled; The treatment occurs rapidly, lasting from a few hours to a few weeks; The process produces no by-product wastestreams, and can be tuned for the degree of contaminant removal desired. This allows it to be used synergistically with other technologies such as biotreatment or soil washing.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Environmental Monitoring

    Environmental monitoring is becoming more important every day in local, national and international policies, showing the environmental awareness demanded by society.

    This fact gives rise to an increase in the amount of legislation that obliges companies to law enforcement. Thus, the necessity of making more pollutants controls means high analysis expenses to the companies, which need to subcontract this service.

    Although applications in this area advance, there is still a clear demand to get new portable and versatile analysis systems for many different application fields such as pollution in environmental or waste waters, monitoring nutrients in agricultural or horticultural water as well as general process control in chemistry industry. Because of the number of enviromental analysis required, there is a need for screening and monitoring measurements of these compounds at contaminated areas.

    Traditional monitoring techniques are typically based on laboratory analysis of field-collected samples that require considerable effort and expense, and the sample may change before analysis. Moreover, the equipment currently available is too large and expensive and it cannot be made portable.Alternatively, microfluidic and electrochemical sensor technologies can contribute to the development of new portable monitoring systems, complementing standard analytical methods for different environmental monitoring applications.In this way, the decentralization and integration of all those typical analyses is the paramount importance in order to reduce cost, simplify the analytical process and make more accessible these technologies to end-users. The development of portable, robust, and accurate Lab-on-a-Chip systems to monitor priority compounds such as contaminants, explosives, chemical warfare agents, inorganic and organic ions is a demand of modern society. Portability allows analyses to be carried out outside of the laboratory, minimizing the risk of contaminating the sample and leading to a faster response time at a lower cost.

    Thus, MicruX solutions and technologies open the gate to develop portable and esay-handly Lab-on-a-Chip devices in order to improve pollutants in-situ analysis in a very economic and efficient way.

    By MicruX Technologies based in Oviedo, SPAIN.

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