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water toxicity Applications

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity based consents

    Water companies, water authorities or publicly-owned treatment works (POTW) need to have some knowledge of the composition of the wastes they it receive. In addition to testing for ammonia and BOD or COD levels, treatment works can license industrial discharges on the basis of concentrations of some of the known toxic compounds. However, it is recognised that very many non-regulated toxic materials still enter the treatment works and reduce the efficiency of biodegradation, and may cause toxic shock. The way is now open for more widespread use of direct toxicity tests as a basis for toxicity-based consents. Samples of the industrial effluent are collected at source, for testing on the actual bacteria of the receiving activated sludge. The tests used are the Respiration Inhibition Test and the Nitrification Inhibition Test. Note that this approach mirrors that of the regulators of discharges to receiving waters, who are now using direct toxicity tests (DTA) or whole effluent toxicity tests (WET tests) in order to protect the receiving environment.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in Motherwell, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity reduction tests

    In industrial manufacturing companies, before a new process comes on-line, it is important to measure the toxicity of the effluent stream. This is especially the case for companies who treat their own waste. From the toxicity value (EC50) obtained, it may be a cost-effective solution to simply discharge the effluent to the treatment works at a slow and defined rate to minimise damage to the activated sludge. Following a period of acclimatisation it is often possible to increase feed rates to the plant and this can again be managed using the Strathtox Respirometer. An alternative approach is to undertake toxicity reduction procedures, such as neutralisation or acid hydrolysis, in pilot-scale laboratory studies. The Respiration or the Nitrification Inhibition Test may be used for this. In the future, toxicity reduction may be stipulated by local authority, water company or publicly-owned treatment works prior to giving discharge consents. Toxicity reduction may be evaluated using toxicity tests on activated sludge provided by the treatment works.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity testing

    If industrial wastewater entering a treatment works contains toxic components the rate of biodegradation will be inhibited or stop completely. This can result in failed consents and will certainly give rise to operational problems. Visible indications include deflocculation, bulking and the appearance of filamentous bacteria. Sometimes, there are no visible effects. When the sludge bacteria are inhibited, there is the possibility of toxicity carryover in the effluent that is discharged to receiving waters. With new environmental legislation being introduced, worldwide, to protect the natural environment, toxin discharge is now a serious concern for treatment plant managers.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity tracking

    If toxicity is identified in a mixed sewage entering a treatment works, the problem for the plant manager is to track and identify the source of the toxicity. This can be done by sampling the effluent stream at various points in its length. By working in a logical sequence back up the sewer network the number of samples can be minimised. This type of testing should be rigorously enforced for new product introduction by a waste producer, as well as sampling the effluents directly at source. The samples would be tested against the activated sludge of the receiving works, using the Respiration Inhibition Test or the Nitrification Inhibition Test.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Drinking water treatment

    Drinking water can be produced from any natural sources like groundwater, lakes and rivers (surface waters) or seawater. Drinking water standards are set by the World Health organisation or by the European Union. Drinking water must be free of suspended solids, microorganisms and toxic chemicals. Mineral concentration recommendation vary from country to country but most of the minerals have a maximum concentration recommended to ensure safe, equilibrated and pleasant water to drink.

    By Lenntech Water Treatment based in Delft, NETHERLANDS.

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    Water Treatment Solutions for Nitrate Removal

    Most nitrogenous materials in natural waters tend to be converted to nitrate, so all sources of combined nitrogen, particularly organic nitrogen and ammonia, should be considered as potential nitrate sources. Primary sources of organic nitrates include human sewage and livestock manure, especially from feedlots. The primary inorganic nitrates which may contaminate drinking water are potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate both of which are widely used as fertilizers. According to the Toxics Release Inventory, releases to water and land totaled over 112 million pounds from 1991 through 1993.

    By Adedge Water Technologies, LLC based in Buford, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Online Monitoring for the Drinking Water Industry

    AppliTek manufactures wet-chemical analyzers specifically designed for measuring on a continuous base the quality indices of drinking water, from raw water intake up to distribution level. Our systems have a small footprint, reduced reagent consumption and show excellent levels of detection in compliance with modern standards.

    On top of that, the delivery of safe water throughout the water cycle will raise the need for efficient monitoring systems detecting in real-time contaminations. `Broadband toxicity`, a non-specific parameter defined by AppliTek, is a prodigiously new and clean technology for safeguarding drinking water.

    By AppliTek NV based in Nazareth, BELGIUM.

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    MPP water purification systems for industrial waste and process water application

    Removal of total spectrum of non-polar and polar hydrocarbons proven in practice: MPPE removes toxic, non-polar, non biodegradable compounds, aromatics, poly aromatics, halogenated, chlorinated, PCBs, THT (TetraHydroTiophene), Dioxins, CS2 etc. Folowed by biotreatment removing polar biodegradable compounds. Optional: UF and/or activated carbon filtration and RO for reuse as process or boiler feed water.

    By VWT Techno Center Netherlands B.V. - MPP Systems based in Ede, NETHERLANDS.

  • Monitoring of Algae in Drinking Water

    The UniLux in-situ fluorometer can be configured to detect a number of key parameters that are of importance to the Water Supply Industry. Primarily, the detection of Chlorophyll a in stored water systems, such as reservoirs, assists in the planning and informs decisions on water abstraction in relation to natural algae blooms that regularly occur throughout the year. As well as Chlorophyll a, these in-situ fluorometers can detect cyanobacterias, such as Phycocyanin and Phycoerythrin, which are often associated with algae groups of a toxic nature. Knowledge of concentrations of algae within the water can assist in determining the loading into water processing plants.

    These in-situ fluorometers are available as single parameter sensors (UniLux), or 3 channel sensors (TriLux).The CTG FastFlow fast repetition rate fluorometer provides information on the physiological state of algae it monitors. As well as providing detailed information on the growth rate of the algae (which can indicate the occurrence of a future algae bloom), it can immediately inform and alarm on toxins that have accidentally or deliberately been introduced into the water systems, as with the FastGuard system. The FastFlow differs from the FastGuard system in that it logs and displays detailed information on the state of the algae monitored for operational requirements.

    By Chelsea Technologies Group based in West Molesey, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Industrial water Ammonia & Arsenic removal from water

    Nitrogen is a nutrient essential to all forms of life as a basic building block of plant and animal protein. Nevertheless, too much of it can be toxic. The processes used for the removal of ammonium ions from drinking waters include ion exchange. PuriTech`s ION-IX system can be broken up into 4 distinctive zones with each zone operating continuously. The resin is initially loaded with the Ammonia ions (and partially calcium and magnesium)in the adsorption zone. As the ION-IX multi-port valve rotates, the resin that has been saturated with Ammonia ions (and some calcium and magnesium ions)moves into a one-bed displacement zone with softened water to ensure hard water does not cause precipitation within the multi port valve.

    By PuriTech Ltd based in Herentals, BELGIUM.

  • Cyanide Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Cyanides are used in a number of chemical synthesis and metallurgical processes (as simple salts or cyanide complexes). As a class, cyanides are highly toxic and must be destroyed or removed from wastewaters prior to discharge. The most common method for treating free or simple cyanide is alkaline chlorination. However, chlorination of cyanide results in highly toxic intermediates (e.g., cyanogen chloride) and, if organic material is present, chlorinated VOC’s. These compounds, together with the residual chlorine, create additional environmental problems. Consequently, there is a growing need for alternative, non-chlorine methods for destroying cyanides. Peroxygen compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfuric acid (1), and persulfates (1) are effective alternatives to alkaline chlorination for destroying free and complexed cyanides. The choice of peroxygen system depends on the reaction time available, the desired products (cyanate, or CO2 and NH3), the types of cyanides being treated (free, weak acid dissociable, or inert), and the system economics. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While hydrogen peroxide will oxidize free cyanide, it is common to catalyze the reaction with a transition metal such as soluble copper, vanadium, tungsten or silver in concentrations of 5 to 50 mg/L (2).

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Water intake protection monitoring for wastewater treatment industry

    Intake protection systems have been extensively installed to protect water treatment works, from ingress of polluted water and waste-water plants from toxic chemical loads. A suitable system typically comprises a suit of instrumentation, measuring key chemical, physical and indicator parameters dependant upon the identified risks, associated with the individual site activity or discharges from neighbouring industry.

    By Pollution & Process Monitoring Ltd based in Sevenoaks, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Organic Micro-Pollutants Removal

    Organic Micro-pollutants are low and trace levels of synthetic organic substances released in water through human activity. They can be found in industrial, agricultural and domestic wastewater streams. Some of the most difficult-to-treat wastewater contains micro-pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), herbicides and pesticides, personal care products (PCPs), toxic chemicals, carcinogenic and endocrine disruptive compounds (EDCs), and emerging contaminants.

    By Arvia Technology based in Runcorn, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • US Peroxide Rapid Response

    US Peroxide (USP) is uniquely positioned to rapidly respond to your environmental treatment challenges. USP combines experienced applications and equipment field support with a large inventory of storage systems and pumping modules to respond quickly to time sensitive water and wastewater treatment situations. Advantages With considerable inventory of tank and pump systems as well as our partnerships with leading chemical suppliers, USP can mobilize chemicals and equipment quickly to respond to your rapid response needs, often within 24 hours. We offer dosing options are designed to meet all safety requirements and sized to meet your specific process and dosage rates requirements. Our Applications Engineers and Equipment and Engineering Services teams will provide timely and thorough applications assistance and technical support during the entire project. Download the Rapid Response Solutions Brochure (PDF) Sample Applications Examples of where our Rapid Response Program has successfully addressed treatment challenges include the following: Temporary application of hydrogen peroxide as a source of supplemental dissolved oxygen in biological treatment systems during periods of excessive BOD loading Hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of high strength wastewater to reduce toxicity or BOD/COD prior to biological treatment Emergency hydrogen peroxide treatment of lagoons or ponds to control hydrogen sulfide and other odors Shock cleaning of cooling water systems for biofouling and slime control

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • BOD and COD Removal

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been used to reduce the BOD and COD of industrial wastewaters for many years. While the cost of removing BOD / COD through chemical oxidation with hydrogen peroxide is typically greater than that through physical or biological means, there are nonetheless specific situations which justify the use of hydrogen peroxide. These include: Predigestion of wastewaters which contain moderate to high levels of compounds that are toxic, inhibitory, or recalcitrant to biological treatment (e.g., pesticides, plasticizers, resins, coolants, and dyestuffs); Pretreatment of high strength / low flow wastewaters – where biotreatment may not be practical – prior to discharge to a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW);Enhanced separation of entrained organics by flotation and settling processes; and Supply of supplemental Dissolved Oxygen (DO) when biological treatment systems experience temporary overloads or equipment failure. http://www.h2o2.com/industrial/applications.aspx?pid=104&name=BOD-COD-Removal

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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