A Biaxial Apparatus for Testing Soils
A biaxial compression apparatus for investigating shear-band formation and growth in dry and water-saturated sand and clay specimens is described. This apparatus is a modification of the device designed by Vardoulakis and Goldscheider  for testing planar shear banding in sands. The modifications involve improved axial load guidance, low friction linear bearing, and enhanced load and displacement measurement instrumentation. The apparatus allows for accurate prelocalization material behavior and shear-band growth investigation. Specimen preparation and data evaluation procedures are described, and test results on dry Ottawa sand are presented.