Natural attenuation makes use of natural processes to contain the spread of contamination from chemical spills and reduce the concentration and amount of pollutants at contaminated sites. Natural attenuation—also referred to as intrinsic remediation, bioattenuation, or intrinsic bioremediation—is an in situ treatment method. This means that environmental contaminants are left in place while natural attenuation works on them. Natural attenuation is often used as one part of a site cleanup that also includes the control or removal of the source of the contamination.
How does natural attenuation work?
The processes contributing to natural attenuation are typically acting at many sites, but at varying rates and degrees of effectiveness, depending on the types of contaminants present, and the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil and ground water. Natural attenuation processes are often categorized as destructive or non-destructive. Destructive processes destroy the contaminant. Non-destructive processes do not destroy the contaminant but cause a reduction in contaminant concentrations. Natural attenuation processes may reduce contaminant mass (through destructive processes such as biodegradation and chemical transformations); reduce contaminant concentrations (through simple dilution or dispersion); or bind contaminants to soil particles so the contamination does not spread or migrate very far (adsorption).
Biodegradation, also called bioremediation, is a process in which naturally occurring microorganisms (yeast, fungi, or bacteria) break down, or degrade, hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic sub-stances. Microorganisms, like humans, eat and digest organic substances for nutrition and energy. (In chemical terms, 'organic' compounds are those that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms.) Certain microorganisms can digest organic substances such as fuels or solvents that are hazardous to humans. Biodegradation can occur in the presence of oxygen (aerobic conditions) or without oxygen (anaerobic conditions). In most subsurface environments, both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of contaminants occur. The microorganisms break down the organic contaminants into harmless products-mainly carbon dioxide and water in the case of aerobic biodegradation.