A comaprative perspective of US and UK thinking on e coli reactivation in digestion and dewatering
- UK and US rules in Pathogens
- History of Reactivation/Regrowth in US
- WERF Projects
- Correlation to odors
- UK Situation
US and UK regulations
- The USEPA regulations are mandatory
- USEPA 503.15 The Class A pathogen requirements on 503.32 (a) or the Class B pathogen requirements in 503.32 (b) shall be met when bulk sewage sludge is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.
US and UK regulations
- The Safe Sludge Matrix is a voluntary agreement between the UK water industry ADAS and the British Retail Consortium in order to ensure the highest possible food safety and gives retailers and the food industry unquestionable confidence that the use of biosolids on agricultural land is not only completely safe but also fully sustainable.
- Gives ….. “clear guidance on the minimum acceptable level of treatment of any sewage sludge (often referred to as biosolids) based product which may be applied to that crop or rotation.
Timeline of the reactivation and regrowth issue
- 2000 - A WWTP in North Carolina (digested product) converted to HS centrifuges
- Immediately, odors increased, and testing of indicator organisms showed orders of magnitude increases
- Generator felt compelled to stop land application, began landfilling
- Restarted land application with supplemental liming, odor was still an issue
Comprehensive Odor Emissions Study Hall Street Wastewater Treatment Plant Concord, New Hampshire
ABSTRACTThe operation of the Hall Street wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Concord, NH has caused the emission of objectionable odors from various liquid and solids treatment processes resulting in periodic odor complaints from its neighbors. The City of Concord retained Fay, Spofford & Thorndike (FST) to conduct a comprehensive odor emissions study at the Hall Street WWTP and to recommend appropriate corrective measures. An on-site sampling program was developed to quantify and characterize odor emissions...
Anaerobic Digesters Heated by Direct Steam Injection: Experience and Lessons Learned
The City of Crystal Lake (Illinois) municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) employs an anaerobic digester heating system that differentiates itself from most heating systems by using direct steam injection (DSI). This heating system has been in operation for over four years.Selection criterion included: high energy efficiency, small footprint, low maintenance costs and tight temperature control. Initial concerns over killing anaerobic microbes and struvite formation have been dispelled. Solids destruction...
Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification through Low-DO Operation
Single-tank simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SNdN) processes can potentially eliminate the need for separate tanks and for recycling mixed liquor from oxic nitrifying zones to the typically upstream anoxic zones for denitrification. However, the conditions involved are more susceptible to sludge bulking by excessive growth of filamentous bacteria. This study was aimed at identifying the suitable operation conditions, such as sludge retention time (SRT), DO and cyclic aeration, to avoid bulking and...
HD Q-PAC® Bio-media Eliminates Odors at Mt. Dora, Florida Water Reclamation Plant. System Very ...
The water reclamation plant at Mt. Dora, Florida had an odor problem at the headworks collection well. Several pump stations in the community send their water to this location. The discharge of the various lines is random. At times one line may be discharging water while other lines are idle. At other times multiple lines are discharging. There are periods of no water discharge at various times during the day. As a consequence, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels vary greatly from hour to hour and even from...
Waste Water Treatment Plants
In 1980, Los Angeles began exploring alternatives to control the H2S concentration in the digester gas produced at the Hyperion Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP), which treats nearly 420 MGD, wastewater generating over 475 tons of raw sludge per day. The digester gas H2S concentration had to be controlled so that the SOx emissions from the on-site combustion of the gas could be kept within acceptable regulatory limits, allowing the gas to be burned on-site to generate steam for heat or electricity or...
Oxidation System for Sanitary Landfills & Recycling Centers
The Broward County, Florida, Central Sanitary Landfill & Recycling Center operates the country’s largest landfill gas turbine-to-energy plant. Approximately 9 MMSCFD of landfill gas is collected from 300 wells and converted into electricity. During the cleanup after hurricane Andrew, large amounts of construction and demolition debris were brought into the landfill for disposal. Over a very short period of time, the H2S concentration in the landfill gas began to increase, causing severe odor problems in...
Evaluating Denitrification Filters
Untitled Document Before selecting a denitrification filter, designers should compare all available systems and assess their performance to date With the development of total maximum daily loads for nutrient discharges, many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) face stringent nutrient limits. Deep-bed denitrification filters that remove nitrogen and solids are a proven technology for treating wastewater to meet low total nitrogen (TN) limits. A variety...
FDA Gets Tough: Fears of bioterrorism have sparked a new wave of safety regulations for the food ...
Untitled Document Food safety is a key element in the war on bioterrorism. The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act, enacted in June 2002, specifically requires food facilities to register and to provide the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with “prior notice” of imported food shipments. To view the full article click here (PDF - 131 KB)
Real Time Control of the Sewage System in St Malo
Saint-Malo is an extremely attractive and popular seaside resort on the north coast of Brittany in France. Covering 1,400 hectares, the local population of 50,000 increases to 120,000 in the tourist season. One of the distinguishing features of this part of the Channel coast is a very high tidal range – 14 meters from low to high, with a potential impact back through the sewer network. Combined together, these factors make the effective operation of the sewer system and effluent quality particularly important....
Recovery of Precious Metal Catalysts - A New Process Using Supercritical Water Oxidation
Up to now, the recovery of precious metals used as catalysts in chemical processes has involved the use of incineration. Now, however, a British-Swedish joint venture has developed a process which uses supercritical water oxidation instead, which provides many economic and environmental advantages. Precious metals are used extensively in catalysts in a wide range of industrial chemical processes. Sometimes they are used in a homogeneous form, but more often fixed to a solid support for ease of handling. In many...
Sludge Disposal that’s Sustainable, Safe and Economically Viable
The Kemwater Recycling Process – KREPRO for treatment of sewage sludge is based on a completely new separation technology, which uses existing knowledge in an innovative way. It reduces both the organic and inorganic content of the sludge. The organic content is re-duced by about 30% and the inorganic about 70% if digested sludge is treated. All metals and salts are dissolved; the remaining undissolved inorganics are mainly silicates like sand and grit. In constast, most sludge treatment technologies used today...
Integrating GIS and Hydraulic Modelling in Urban and Rural Applications
Overview In the UK, numerical Hydraulic Modelling of the urban environment, water networks and rivers plays a vital role in providing the UK Water Industry with solutions for protecting the environment, meeting UK Government and European Regulations, meeting OPEX and CAPEX business targets, and improving the efficiency of Water Companies in managing their assets. Similarly, the UK water industry has invested heavily in GIS and asset databases. But until recently these have been under utilised by the modelling...
Selective DBP Precursor Removal with an Innovative Ion Exchange Process
The City of Chesapeake, Virginia has provided a reliable and safe drinking water to its customers for many years. The City has been providing this drinking water despite a water supply that is extremely high in organics with seasonal outbreaks of chlorides. As a result, the 10-mgd Northwest River Water Treatment Plant receives water that is frequently difficult-to-treat. This water requires very high coagulant dosages during all times of the year and seasonal reverse osmosis treatment to meet the EPA Stage 1...
Biocycle Nationwide Survey: The State of Biosolids in America
The State of Biosolids in America TAKING the pulse of biosolids management practices in the United States yields a combination of hard data and valuable insights. Between survey responses and telephone conversations, state biosolids coordinators around the country paint an overall picture of progress with the beneficial use of biosolids, along with a dose of reality about political, economic and regulatory pressures that may hamper future advances. The year 2000 was certainly an interesting one in the annals of...
Market Expansion: Private-Public Partnership
Introduction Severn Trent is one of the world`s largest water and waste services companies. It is an environmental contractor, providing water, sewerage and waste management services to communities around the world. The company safeguards public health by providing safe drinking water and effective sanitation services, while it protects the environment and serves the community by disposing safely of other peoples` polluting waste. On the island nation of Trinidad and Tobago, water service was poor; water was...
Water Industry on the Eco Wave?
A wave of privatization is rolling through the water industry – at the environment‘s expense? In order to provide an answer to this question, the Environmental-Rating agency oekom research AG, Munich, put a number of water supply companies and manufacturers of water appliances to the environmental test. In results published today, oekom identifies the British water supplier Severn Trent as the environmental leader of the water supply group with a B grade in the overall Environmental-Rating. The Austrian water...
Waste Foundry Quartz Sand Utilization
Abstract Foundry production needs high quality of quartz sand. After production, most of the sand is recycled and used again, but there is still a certain quantity which cannot be used. This paper presents the results of the researches made with a view to utilization of waste sand from foundry production. It is possible to use such material in building materials production and building construction. Introduction The development of foundry production in the territory of Yugoslavia dates from the beginnings of...
Analysis of the future utilization of municipal sewage sludge in Baden-Württemberg
In the past a significant share of municipal sewage sludge generated in Baden-Württemberg was disposed on local landfill sites, transferred to other Federal States and abroad, and utilized in agriculture. Due to changes in the legislative framework, diminishing capacities outside Baden-Württemberg, and acceptance problems in agriculture new ways for sewage sludge treatment, disposal, and re-utilization are necessary. Some of these are discussed in the following and evaluated with regard to selected criteria....
Achieving Pathogen Stabilization Using Vermicomposting
Within the last decade, implementation of state and federal regulations and other local codes have changed biosolids processing in Florida. Previously, biosolids stabilization varied greatly among the state’s 3,500 to 4,000 wastewater treatment facilities. Public and privately owned wastewater treatment facilities were required to stabilize their biosolids to a minimum Class C standard for land application, with most facilities using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Requirements for septage solids stabilization,...
Composters Build Strong Links to California Farms
The rapidly increasing amounts of compost applied to California farms can be traced to numerous factors — better crops, fewer disease problems, greater emphasis on product quality, mandated state recycling goals, savings in disposal costs and savings in chemical inputs. And then there’s the factor of friendship, longtime personal relationships that build trust between composters and farm managers. All these reasons surfaced in a series of interviews with individuals in charge of organics recycling and farming...
Siting Waste Management Facilities: The Problem That Won´t Go Away
Abstract Facility siting is an issue of ongoing concern in waste management. This issue is even more problematic when considering nonpoint disposal techniques such as land application of sewage sludge and municipal solid waste (MSW) compost. This paper presents three case studies which address: 1) local property value impacts of landfills; 2) community concerns regarding siting of a nearby MSW composting facility and issues surrounding the land application of the final product; and 3) community concerns regarding...
Recycling of Municipal Wastes in Agriculture. I. Sewage Sludge Application to Corn Crop
Abstract A two year’s field experiment (1995 and 1996) was conducted on a Typic Xerofluvent in order to study the influence of sewage sludge application on corn yield and nutrient uptake. Treatments included control (no sewage sludge, no mineral fertilisation), mineral fertilization (no sewage sludge) and sewage sludge application in total rates from 50 to 130 ton.ha-1 dry sewage sludge, applied gradually during the two years of experimentation. The results showed that sewage sludge application caused a significan...
Common Treatment Technologies for Halogenated SVOCs in Soil, Sediment, and Sludge
Common treatment technologies for halogenated SVOCs in soil, sediment, and sludge include biodegradation, dehalogenation, incineration, and excavation with off-site disposal. All types of biodegradation, both in situ or ex situ, can be considered to remediate soils: in situ bioremediation, bioventing, composting, controlled solid phase, or landfarming. Slurry phase biological treatment is also applicable but is less widely used. Treatability studies should be conducted to evaluate design parameters, such as...
Introduction The utilization of fungal biodegradation involves the controlled usage of these specially cultivated fungi to treat contaminants. White Rot Fungus White rot fungus has been reported to degrade a wide variety of organopollutants because of its lignin-degrading or wood-rotting enzymes. Two different treatment configurations have been tested for white rot fungus, in situ and bioreactor. An aerobic system using moisturized air on wood chips is used in a reactor for biodegradation. A reactor was used...
Water Quality Models
` In order to determine the impacts of a particular discharge on ambient water quality, it is usually necessary to model the diffusion and dispersion of the discharge in the relevant water body. The approach applies both to new discharges and to upgrading of existing sources. This note provides guidance on models that may be applicable in the context of typical Bank projects.` Introduction Mathematical models can be used to predict changes in ambient water quality due to changes in discharges of wastewater. In...
Energy Efficiency, Pollution Prevention, and the Bottom Line
Introduction For many years, efforts to promote energy efficiency and pollution prevention (P2) traveled on parallel paths. Most energy efficiency advocates considered only the energy savings aspects of their projects and most proponents of P2 did not include energy on their list of sources of pollution. More recently, the two groups promoting energy efficiency and P2 have begun to realize the synergies of working together. Energy efficiency projects often have non-energy P2 benefits and P2 projects often save...