John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A combined toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics approach to assess the effect of porewater composition on cadmium bioavailability to Folsomia candida

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The aim of the present study was to improve our understanding of cadmium bioavailability by linking toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. The springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to different cadmium concentrations in solutions embedded in inert quartz sand. Survival and cadmium uptake in the animals were followed for 21 days. After 10 days some animals were transferred to clean medium to assess cadmium elimination. Using a first‐order one‐compartment model, an overall uptake rate constant (k1) of 0.18 L kganimal−1 d−1 and an elimination rate constant (k2‐TK) of 0.02 d−1 were calculated. Survival decreased with time resulting in an estimated final LC50 of 0.51 mM. When multiplying the final LC50 with the bioconcentration factor (k1/k2‐TK), a lethal body concentration (LBC) of 4.6 µmol Cd g−1 dry body weight was estimated. LC50‐animal values based on internal cadmium concentrations were between 3.56 and 9.91 with an overall value of 7.9 (95% CI: 3.8–12.0) µmol Cd g−1 dry body weight. Since the 95% confidence interval of the LC50‐animal included the LBC, there was good agreement of cadmium toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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