A definitive guide from microswitches manufacturer with the things you need to know about the micro switches
What is a microswitch?
A Microswitch is an independent switch that works with electricity. The switch gets actuated with just a slight physical force. The micro switch is a switch that gets triggered by the application of little power. This means that it needs just only a little energy to activity. The switch uses the tipping-point mechanism. This mechanism is known as the 'over-center' mechanism. The scientific name for the Microswitch is the miniature snap-action switch. The Microswitch is a trademarked name for the small apparatus.
The microswitch is a unique type of switch widely used for various applications because of its mechanism. The device is one of the most versatile switching devices. Therefore, the way it works make it a preferable device for original equipment manufacturer. It is quite different from other devices because of its switching method. The Microswitch executes its switching action by repeatably and precisely positioning the actuator. This is a simple action which various other switching mechanisms cannot replicate. Microswitches are easily found in many devices because of their durability and low cost. Due to this, a microswitch manufacturer could decide to produce certain microswitches for specific markets. They have high durability, which comes as a direct consequence because of how it is designed.
One of the essential elements of the Microswitch is the use of a relatively smaller movement (of the actuator) to produce a relatively more significant shift in the electrical contacts. This mechanism happens at a pretty high speed. The performance speed does not depend on the speed of the actuator. Furthermore, many successful designs of the microswitch exhibit hysteresis. Hysteresis means that a slight reversal of the device's actuator is not enough to undo the contacts. To undo the contacts, there should be a considerable movement in the other direction. The two of these features can help to accomplish a reliable and clean interruption within the switched circuit.
Micro switches are inexpensive devices that can work for a pretty long time. Most microswitches can undergo as much as 10 million working cycles before they completely break down. Microswitches are widely used in different equipment, both within the house as well as in industrial machines. However, the Microswitch's primary characteristic is to be easily actuated, and their durability makes them favorable consumer mechanisms. They are widely used in places where they undergo numerous cycles within their lifespan.
Microswitches are popularly used in safety devices due to the autonomous requirement of several types of equipment in the field. They are inexpensive, reliable, and can get a circuit open. They also keep a machine from going off or holds a door open when someone is within close range of the door.
The origin of the Microswitch
The earliest microswitch was first created by an inventor by the name of Phillip Kenneth McGall. McGall created the now widely used apparatus in Freeport, Illinois, in 1932. At the time of its discovery, McGall was employed at a local battery company. He had discovered the Microswitch as an employee. However, fast forward to five years later, in 1937, W.B. Schulte - the owner of the battery company who employed McGall had begun a company called MICRO SWITCH. The Microswitch is a generic trademark name for devices with the snap-action switch. A microswitch supplier could decide to package the product as a snap-action switch. It means the same thing as the microswitch.
The mode of operation of the Microswitch
The Micro switch comes in different forms. One of these types of small apparatus has two internal conductive springs. An extended flat spring comes hinged at one point of the switch. The Microswitch then comes with electrical contacts at the other end of the switch. The Microswitch comes with an actuator that connects with an intermediate flat spring. The actuator is used to trigger this flat spring. The flat spring keeps the electrical contacts close to each other. If the flat spring gets pushed sufficiently, it will compress a curved spring. This curved spring is what is used to trigger movements in the contacts.
Microswitches tend to make an apparent clicking noise the moment it gets activated. This process is used in the provision of tactile feedback during testing of the switch. When speaking of microswitches, the devices' internal mechanisms are straightforward and well-secured inside their casings. This means that microswitches can be used in tough places and still be able to work reliably.
Furthermore, to ensure performance, certain suitable materials are used for the device's contacts. The switches get chosen because of their ability to repel environmental hazards.
Microswitches are typically created with several holes in the case which gets used to fasten them to any appliance or surface that it is needed. The microswitches are generally small, rectangular apparatus, completely independent, which does not require any maintenance. The low cost of maintenance makes them quickly replaced whenever they wear out. With that said, it is essential to note that the Microswitch barely wears out.
The Microswitch operates with force. During operation, this is measured using the Newton. The operating power is used to describe the level of energy that is needed to activate the switch. Alternatively, the Microswitch also has a release force. Also expressed in Newton, the release force is the force exerted during releasing. In microswitches, there are contact materials that help in its mechanism. The device's contact material gets chosen according to durability needs or any other needs, which affects the decision. Contact materials can be made from such materials as silver, nickel, gold, brass, plus other different alloys.
Most people are usually curious about the life of the Microswitch. In technical terms, Microswitch is measured in millions of cycles, which means that the device has a pretty long life. Most consumer products naturally come with lighter types of microswitches than that of industrial products. However, with a minimal cost the microswitch can be upgraded to the Microswitch with higher capacity.
The nature of the Microswitch is, to an extent, affected by its case material. The Microswitch lasts long partly since its cases are generally created from sturdy materials. Furthermore, fiberglass, as well as other substances, are useful in the production of the Microswitch. This is why a microswitch supplier would insist on strong device casings. Additionally, specialized materials like Nitrile comes in handy in the application the way they are needed. In locations where the device would be subjected to constant vibration and shock, such materials like rubber can be used in this regard. Also, the Microswitch can be built by using zinc steel. The thing is that many humanmade materials for the apparatus are sufficiently durable for significant applications.
The force of operation of Microswitches
All functional microswitches rely on a particular amount of power to activate the actuator. This force gets sent to the actuator, which then triggers the circuit. Whenever the circuit is triggered, it either closes or opens. This depends on whether the switch is usually closed or open. Most standard microswitches operate with force ratings of between 20 and 27 grams. However, they can be produced to operate either below or above that range.
As microswitches are used in various applications, each mechanism comes with its operating force. An example is a microswitch that detects when the door of a refrigerator is open will need not have the same level of sensitivity to that which recognizes whenever coin gets tossed in a vending machine. A switch with more sensitivity will function in the two applications; however, a micro switch with increased sensitivity is easily triggered. Alternatively, any microswitch that is not sufficiently sensitive will result in a lack of action when it is supposed to be triggered. If you need your microswitch to function effectively, you should narrow down the range of its operating force.
Therefore, a microswitch which has a driving force of 20 and 27 grams can work excellently well. But this is due to the microswitch manufacturer and the supplier. A microswitch supplier can demand a light force-sensitive microswitch to be made with an operation force for as low as 6 grams. So, the manufacturer can personalize the operating power by altering the actuator lengths of the microswitch. This alteration correspondingly changes the leverage imposed by the actuators on a switch. One great property of this element of the microswitch is that it can be customized around individual applications. Users need not customize the microswitches themselves. Any good microswitch factory or manufacturer can successfully customize the microswitch (by altering its actuator lengths) to suit the microswitch's intended purpose. Microswitches naturally need a minimal amount of operating force (pressure/push) to work.
Furthermore, they can work at a rapid while only being triggered by a negligible force. In the first instance, the contact of the microswitch Common terminal (C), could either be Normally Open (NO) or Normally Closed (NC). The microswitches act very reliably, efficiently, and fast regardless of the operating force used. Microswitches come in several ranges of electrical ratings that are depicted in amperes (A).
How a micro switch is used
The micro switch comes with several essential components that will be explained in this section. The device has a lever, which, if unpressed and pressed it performs different functions. The pressing action sends a message to the common terminal (C) of the micro switch. The first mode of the switch is at the Normally Closed (NC) position. The move-able or the terminal C contact gets connected to the device's NC terminal. Due to this, no contact is established between the Normally Open (NO) and terminal C. The LED light attached to this mechanism typically glows to show some form of activity.
Then again, if a little force gets imposed on the device's lever terminal or when the terminals get depressed, the NO and C terminals become connected. Consequently, the light attached to this mechanism glows. This means that contact has now been established between the NO and C terminals. Furthermore, depending on the equipment in which the device is to be used, the micro switch can be used in the NO or NC mode simultaneously or separately.
Some essential components of the micro switch
The micro switch is a useful component in every industry of the world. As very multifunctional switches, they can get found in almost every mechanical and electrical device. The following components are essential parts of the micro switch.
In microswitches, the actuator is used to apply a mechanical force to the switch. This applied force changes the state of the switch. The actuators have different designs, from the levers to the buttons and more. The designs are chosen based on the category of actuator that will effectively work with the machinery or the appliance which houses the microswitch. As an example, the button actuator works pretty well on the door of a car. This is because a closed door can press down the button. This creates a change of state within the microswitch. This induces some type of action like switching off an alarm and so on.
The microswitch boots is a component of the microswitch. This boot is inserted above the actuator and any other part of the microswitch. The primary function of the switch boot is to stop the inflow of water into the microswitch. Alternatively, the switch boot can be used as a source of identification. Most times, the switch boot comes color-coded. These color codes show that the switch is a component of a particular system or circuit. Furthermore, colored boots can get used in this regard. It makes locating the microswitch a lot easier.
The microswitch cap is similar to the microswitch boot. Just like the actuator, the microswitch caps goes above the actuator. This provides protection plus an easy way of recognizing the switch.
Microswitch Hex nuts
The hex nuts are special fastening tools that get threaded to the microswitch to hold it firmly. The microswitch hex nuts are great solutions for the microswitch, fixed beneath a surface while the actuator projects out above. The hex nuts are easily used to secure the microswitch. When they are needed, the microswitch can be removed easily.
A microswitch comes with a lever. The purpose of the lever on a microswitch is to activate the actuator. The microswitch levers come in various sizes and designs. They get used in numerous applications. The microswitch lever simplifies the trigger mechanism of the microswitch.
Microswitch terminal covers
Microswitches come with a device known as a terminal cover. The purpose of the terminal cover is to act as an insulation against potential contaminants. The terminal covers offer a way of preventing the terminals from becoming accidentally shorted. They also stop the terminals from touching the operators; otherwise, there could be a potential shock.
How are micro switches differentiated from one another?
Technically, microswitches are different from each other under their normal state, the number of poles, as well as the number of their throws. Furthermore, they get differentiated by their cases. The microswitch has specific designs that are used by printed circuit boards and mechanisms that can be fastened using the hex nut. Due to the reliability and compact size of the microswitch, they can be used in numerous applications.
The apparatus can also be distinguished under its electrical characteristic. The microswitches are compact devices and can only work with minimal voltages and currents. Due to the versatility of the microswitch, certain types can be used in extreme conditions.
Application of the micro switch
Micro switches have two primary areas where they are applied. Firstly, they are used at locations where a minimal operating force and a distinct action are required. In the second scenario, micro switches are utilized in places where lasting reliability is needed. This is because of the internal working mechanism of the device. Furthermore, its long-term reliability is also due to the closing force's autonomous performance towards the switch contacts based on the operating force. Moreover, in micro switches, the reliability of the switch depends on the contact force. The force should be sufficient and should not be excessive. If the switch comes with an optimal contact force, the device is bound to have a long life.
What the primary applications of microswitch?
Microswitches get used in different scenarios. It is often found in domestic, industrial settings and other obvious places. Most micro switches are used in houses, automated devices as well as in the area of security. The micro switch is a common feature in house-hold devices.
The use of microswitch in building, automated devices, and security applications.
In domestic settings, the microswitch device gets used in numerous applications. It can get used in the house, in automated devices, as well as security devices. Some of these uses are:
• Push buttons used in call points and alarms: Microswitches have a standard application as the trigger buttons in fire alarm systems, stop control for emergencies, and door releases for an emergency. The devices get used in emergencies when the alarms are manually activated.
• Triggers to stop devices from getting dismounted – Such devices like card readers, infrared alarms, and panels for access control typically contain the microswitch. Therefore, if the device is damaged, removed, or dismounted, an alarm gets triggered.
• Turning devices found inside surveillance cameras – Still, on security devices, the microswitch is a widely used component for autonomous security devices. It is used in surveillance cameras within the turning machine. The microswitch gets triggered by the time that this turning device gets to its furthermost point. With the microswitch working the surveillance camera, the camera is held within a range of a specified angle of interest of the operator. Here the microswitch works to keep the camera in the right position and prevent it from being compromised.
• Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) applications – Micro switches that work by air pressure are used to detect air pressure changes and control panel switches.
• Elevator door applications – Microswitches are widely used in the switches of manually operated open doors. Furthermore, they are used as switches for control panels for the floor selection mechanism of the elevator.
• Door access controls – The apparatus is commonly used in the operation of the locks of electric doors. It is used to detect a door's unlocking and locking action. It is also used to identify the closing and opening operation of the door. The microswitch is easily applied to detect the opening of the roller door (during roll-up). They are widely used in circuit breakers to identify the device's on-off status. They get commonly used in control panels. The apparatus is also useful in detecting the location of the Cam and Bolt used in the door locks of safes.
• Timer controls – The useful apparatus is also applied in timer controls. They typically get activated whenever the timer entirely runs out.
The use of the microswitch in home applications
As a useful device for domestic components, micro switches are widely applied in home equipment. They are:
• Washing machines: In home washing machines, the device is used in the location of the power supply to either turn on or turn off the machine. They can detect the switching power, plus the angle of the filter and the drums. The microswitch is used in identifying whether or not the door is open. Then again, they are used in the buttons of the equipment's control panel. In the washing machine's internal parts, the apparatus gets used to detect the water level.
• Refrigerators – As a useful component of refrigerators, the microswitch is used in the water and ice dispenser. The microswitch is used to check if the ice maker gets located the right way.
• Air Conditioning Units – The device is useful in the operation of air conditioning units. Microswitch gets used in the equipment to check if the air conditioner's door panels are closed. They accurately detect the angle of the device's louvers. Furthermore, they are useful as the device's reset buttons.
• Microwave Ovens and Rice cookers – In kitchen appliances like the rice cookers, the device is used to determine whether or not the cover of the cooking equipment is closed. Furthermore, inside microwave ovens, the device is applied as safety switches. Additionally, in both rice cookers and microwave ovens, the apparatus is used in the control panel switches.
• Cars and golf carts – Microswitches gets applied in different mobile systems like cars, personal carriers, and golf carts. In golf carts, the device is used at the mobile cart's accelerator pedal to signal the solenoid to move the golf cart. Microswitches get used in both electric and gas golf carts. It is an excellent device for mobile systems.
How you can easily detect whether a microswitch is faulty or bad
A microswitch may appear rather small. However, it is potent and can determine how well your device functions. A majority of micro switch users usually choose the option of using an expert repairer, the moment they discover that their microswitches are not performing according to expectations. Repairing a micro switch is not as difficult as most people tend to think. The critical thing to know is the procedure for fixing the microswitch to ensure that it does not develop any fault. The great thing about having to do this all by yourself is that you will save some money by getting a professional micro switch repairer to work on your device.
Are you looking for a reliable guide to help you understand how you can accurately and safely repair your microswitch? You do not have to study loads of manuals to know how to do this since you will be learning from this definitive guide. This guide will teach you how to detect a faulty or bad microswitch. The following details are a comprehensive guide to checking your micro switch for defects. After going through this definitive guide, you will be better equipped to determine whether the microswitch is in excellent condition or not. With this guide, there will be no need to take to guesswork when repairing your microswitch.
Some common defects of the microswitch
Before you decide to inspect your micro switch for faults, it is imperative to know some of the potential errors that could hinder the microswitch from working optimally. It is important to note that some of these faults of the microswitch can either be resolved and addressed, while other errors can never be solved. With some of these faults, you could get a professional repairer to fix several of these defects; you could not do anything to improve the microswitch when they get these problems.
Some of the commonly known faults of the microswitch are parts of it becoming burnt, depreciation, components/parts with low quality, each time that the switch operates, and suddenly stops. While the device has other known faults, it is known that more than 70% of functional micro switches typically undergo these problems.
Typical properties of the microswitch
Micro switches are used pretty commonly as electrical parts. This comprehensive application of the component means that there are variations of the design. The design of the microswitch can be adapted to fit its purpose. The microswitch can be fabricated depending on the design and the condition that will endure when in use. Because of this condition, the different characteristics of the device have to be considered during fabrication.
1). Actuator Type: Microswitches can be utilized to act as an actuator. This type of actuator is that which control's the device's contacts. There are various types of actuators. Of these types of actuators, the button actuators are the most popular. The lever types are also pretty popular. The different actuators come with variations like longleaf levers, long straight levers, and longleaf levers. Other types of actuators are the spring designs, roller designs, and others.
2). The rating of the contact current: the microswitch can function in this manner. The rating of the contact current is the amount of the amperage which the contacts can handle. Mostly, the microswitches are applied at levels of low current; some designs are produced to be used at applications of high current, like that of the controller of an electric motor and similar devices.
3). The Terminal Type: Microswitches are flexible during installation. Therefore, due to these components' size, they are easily employed on the printed circuit boards. When used as a terminal type component, the microswitch can be used in various ways. These ways include PCB mounts at multiple angles, lugs, and other options. Several of these options of the microswitch are purposely built to be fastened by soldering.
4). IP Rating: The microswitch can be used as a device for an IP rating. IP rating means Ingress Protection Rating. IP Rating is used to measure the degree of the protection of a device from the intrusion of foreign objects like dust, water, and sand. This ingress rating applies to all objects like parts of the human body, chemicals, and others. With the microswitch, the system of rating is more specific than just describing the process with a vague form.
How to choose the right microswitch
Microswitches are miniature switches that are useful in lots of ways. They are widely used in offices, homes, and factories. Therefore, the little devices are in high demand. However, when some users choose to get these small useful devices, they are often at a loss on the parameters to check for. Microswitches are sensible devices that are used in different mechanisms. Therefore, they are exposed to various conditions and environments. This factor plays a significant role. A microswitch used in a golf cart is a lot more different from that used indoors in an office. The prime factor for this difference is that both microswitches get produced in ways that would make them last longer during their performance life. Due to the environments that microswitches are exposed to, it becomes imperative to choose the right properties for their microswitches before they are put into use. If a microswitch with the wrong specification and features are put to use in a harsh environment, it may damage faster than expected. The worst-case scenario is that you could damage the equipment that houses the microswitch. Technically, there are several important properties to look out for when choosing a microswitch. Due to the type of application, you can choose from the various kinds of microswitches. A microswitch can be selected based on several features/properties, such as the terminal. There are different types of terminals in choosing a suitable microswitch. Some terminals are L-Shaped Lever, Roller Lever, Standard Simulated Roller Lever, Small Simulated Roller Lever, Extended Straight Lever, Long Straight Lever, Standard Straight Lever, Short Straight lever, and Pin Plunger. However, apart from the clear terminal choices of microswitches, several other properties can also be selected.
Any reliable microswitch should come with a series of properties. If you want to choose a microswitch for certain conditions, there are plenty of characteristics to look out for. You can select a microswitch by its vibration resistance, shock resistance, contact resistance, and insulation resistance. Furthermore, other properties that could help you choose a suitable microswitch are a tight configuration, small operating travel, high sensitivity, quick action, contact gap, and a beautiful appearance. Most microswitches are also selected by high reliability and long life.
The following properties are best to look out for when choosing a microswitch:
• Insulation resistance: Microswitches come with insulation resistance properties to enable better cope in their environment. Insulation resistance is known as the resistance of the microswitch device to electric shock. A microswitch that has insulation resistance protects the equipment from electric shocks. This way, the device protects the machine from potential damages due to accidental discharges. The technique for measuring the microswitch's insulation resistance property is to test and inspect it in isolation. To perform reliable, the miniature switch should have a sensible range of insulation resistance.
• Contact resistance: a reliable microswitch should have the ability to resist contacts. Due to the environments that the devices are exposed to a lack of contact, resistance could be detrimental to the performance of the device, especially in an encased component. This weak property can also affect more extensive equipment. Therefore, to protect your equipment, the microswitch should come with sufficient contact resistant properties.
• Vibration resistance: Sensitive devices such as microswitches undergo numerous vibrations throughout their working life. Therefore, users must check out for this critical quality when out to purchase one. The microswitch should be able to undergo vibration without any deterioration or failure while performing their functions. To this end, any expert micro switch manufacturer will put sufficient effort during the device production to ensure that it is strong enough to withstand vibrations in specific environments. Therefore, to verify the ability of the tools to withstand vibrations, the microswitch manufacturer ensure that they thoroughly test the microswitch. For operation in moving instruments, the vibration of microswitches is typically at a high frequency. Therefore, the devices are tested for their resistance to vibration in high frequencies. Before the device gets moved to the microswitch factory, it is made to be vibration resistant. In this case, the vibration resistance represents amplitude or acceleration in a specific frequency range where there will not be any damage or malfunction. In this case, a microswitch is vibration resistant when it can undergo without getting damaged different levels of vibration in its functional life.
• Shock resistance: Micro switches are known to work in environments where there might be sudden movements. These movements can result in other components in the equipment to move out of place and violently come in contact with one another. A microswitch should be resilient or strong enough to withstand sudden impacts without getting damaged during its working life. It is often anticipated that microswitches will undergo several shock impacts in their working life. Therefore, the durability of the device is enhanced if they are produced to become shock resistant.
• Compact Size: A microswitch should be small enough to be used in a piece of equipment. In addition to this compact size, the miniature switch should have a beautiful appearance to improve its aesthetics. A great looking microswitch with an equal level of functionality is preferred to a non-good looking microswitch. Therefore, a microswitch's appearance is a property that you should look out for when choosing one for use.
• Tight configuration: A microswitch is an excellent choice for you if you choose one with a tighter configuration. A tight configuration means that all the microswitch parts are appropriately supported and fastened to guarantee that it works without defects. Devices with loose arrangements practically are susceptible to errors because of the free-standing nature of its internal mechanism. A microswitch with a loose configuration will be prone to impacts and accidents. However, a microswitch with a tight configuration will withstand any hazard because of its tight configuration.
• Contact gap: A reliable microswitch should have an excellent contact gap for it to function optimally. Depending on its intended use, the microswitch should possess a suitable contact gap that will enable it to work correctly. The contact gap ensures that the device can react on time each time that the actuator gets activated.
• Quick action: A quick-reacting microswitch functions as a result of its contact gap. The fast action process is the amount of time it takes the actuator to respond to the electric impulse. A fast-acting microswitch is always a favorite product among any microswitch supplier. The device works more efficiently if it has a quick-acting mechanism.
• High Sensitivity: When choosing a microswitch, you may want to choose one with high sensitivity. A microswitch that comes with a highly sensitive property ensures that the device performs its function in the slightest change of specific features that activates it. Since microswitch manufacturers make their products respond to change, a microswitch with high sensitivity will be highly favored.
• Small operating travel: The microswitch device works with a traveling apparatus which travels a short distance to activate it. The shorter this distance, the more effective is the performance of the microswitch device. Therefore, most microswitch users tend to go for the device's small operating travel.
Unionwell is one of the leading China micro switch, slide switch, door latch, car door lock, mechanical switches manufacturers. The company operates a 22,000+ square meter factor located in the gateway between Shenzhen and Dongguang. They produce an output of more than 300 million pieces annually. The company is known for making a wide variety of cost-effective micro switches, modules and other precise electronic components. Products are fully tested and compliant with UL, ENEC, EK, CQC laboratory certifications.
Organization: Huizhou Unionwell Technology Co., Ltd
Address: No. 532, Office Building, Huizhou Industrial Transfer Industrial Park, Longmen County, Huizhou City, Guangdong Province,China