Keywords: LV-grid, virtual power stations, VPS, small-scale energy zones, SSEZ, PSCAD-EMTDC dynamic modelling, small-scale embedded generators, SSEG, energy storage, renewable energy technology, low voltage networks, controllable loads, environmental impact
A dynamic virtual power station model comprising small-scale energy zones
Concerns over global warming and high oil prices are expected to lead to a continuous increase in electricity generated by distributed renewable energy sources and small-scale embedded generators (SSEGs). This increase in SSEG will pose numerous technical challenges for distribution network operators. The small-scale energy zone (SSEZ) concept seeks to overcome these challenges using appropriate coordinated control. An SSEZ is defined as a section of low voltage network with a high penetration of SSEGs, controllable loads and energy storage units. This paper puts forward the concept of the virtual power station (VPS), consisting of a number of aggregated SSEZs, which has the potential to offer significant improvements in the commercial value and environmental impact of the installed SSEGs by enabling provision of ancillary services. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this concept, a dynamic power system model of a VPS has been developed.