Crises are multi–faceted and have been approached by various academic disciplines using different perspectives and theoretical underpinnings. This lack of integration hampers the development of an effective framework that can be applied to various situations. To remedy this fragmentation, we developed a framework, entitled enterprise crisis management framework (ECMF). Determinants, processes, and outcomes are identified from multiple academic domains, and are further strengthened with the assertion from the activity theory. We propose a systematic framework to make sense of, reflect on, and analyse a crisis based on a theory, and how a crisis can be responded to by an organisation using technology and support from its environment or community for preparedness. A case study exemplifies the utility of this framework: organisations can not only identify and understand issues in crises reactively but also can better respond to and prepare for crises proactively. Our propositions highlight possible directions of future research.
Keywords: information systems, communications technology, media, systems framework, systems analysis, activity theory, interdisciplinary research, extreme events, crisis management, crisis response, reactive management, proactive management, case study, emergency management, emergency response, emergency preparedness