Keywords: extreme events, Hurricane Katrina, Northridge earthquake, I–40 bridge collapse, transport disruption, freight disruption, analysis framework, TransCAD, critical infrastructures, USA, United States, transport networks, freight transport, emergency planning, emergency management, supply–demand balance, re–routing strategies, repair strategies, spatial distribution, emergency response
A framework to analyse extreme events with case studies
Prone to various hazards and/or structural damages, transportation networks are proven to be vulnerable at each extreme event. When an extreme event occurs, the disruption causes congestion and increases travel time, distance, and cost. This study focuses on the development of a framework to analyse the impact of an extreme event on all–commodity freight transport, and provides a comparison of how the framework can be applied to different extreme events. It is demonstrated that any extreme case can be analysed by focusing on the segment of the transportation network affected. The study discusses the supply–demand balance changes on re–routing and repair strategies that may occur due to an extreme event, and illustrates the significance of the impact on the spatial distribution of the freight transport in the USA. Ease of application and the straight forward approach of the framework aims to benefit transportation planners and decision makers by enabling them to observe the aftermath of extreme events and by providing guidance in re–routing and restoration strategies.