A health risk assessment of reclaimed municipal wastewater for industrial and miscellaneous use
The study evaluated the safety of reclaimed water using health risk assessment and biotoxicity tests. The reclaimed water was produced from reverse osmosis and used in industrial and miscellaneous purposes. The health risk assessment was conducted based on the concentrations of detectable pollutants in reclaimed water in a hypothetical scenario. The estimated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks are lower than the generally accepted level. Biotoxicity evaluation included three genotoxicity tests, a chronic toxicity test using medaka fishes, and a subchronic toxicity test using mice. The reclaimed water is not genetically toxic, and does not cause significant chronic effects on these model organisms. These results confirm the safety of using reclaimed water from municipal wastewater treatment plants.