A meta analytic review of life cycle assessment and flow analyses studies of palm oil biodiesel
This work reviews and performs a meta‐analysis of the recent Life Cycle Assessment and flow analyses studies palm oil biodiesel. The best available data and information are extracted, summarized and discussed. Most studies found palm oil biodiesel would produce positive energy balance with a range of energy ratio between 2.27 and 4.81 with net energy production of 112 GJ ha−1yr−1. With the exception of few studies, most conclude that palm oil biodiesel is a net emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere. The origin of oil palm plantation is the foremost determinant of GHG emissions and Carbon payback time (CPBT). Converting peatland forest results in GHG emissions up to 60 tons CO2‐eq ha−1 yr−1 leading to 420 years of CPBT. In contrast, converting degraded land or grassland for plantation can positively offset the system to become a net sequester of 5 tons CO2‐eq ha−1 yr−1. Few studies have discussed cradle‐to‐grave environmental impacts such as acidification, eutrophication, toxicity and biodiversity, which open opportunity for further studies. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2012 SETAC
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