A method for estimating watershed restoration feasibility under different treatment levels
The restoration of watershed health can be influenced by ecological, technical and socio-economic factors. The paper presents a conceptual framework and typology to assess watershed ecological restoration based on the properties and processes of sustainable watershed development. According to multiple life stages, habitat properties and existing legal frameworks and applicable valuation approaches, the bio-indicator that integrates natural, political and socio-economic dimensions is proposed. With existing assessment results and official web-pages as references, evaluation systems concerning human impacts on aquatic systems are set forth. Suitable aquatic bio-indicators can standardize the monitoring methodology with respect to water quality, organic pollutants and pesticides, generation time, migration ability, saprobic status, taxonomic composition and diversity. A large number of fish-based indexes have been developed to monitor and manage river ecosystems. Biophysical and statistical models are being used to identify influential stream variables that correlate with macroinvertebrate indices. A probabilistic fuzzy hybrid model to assess river water quality is proposed. The method and process of ecological risk assessment are provided based on adaptive management principles. The environmental sustainability index (ESI) is used to estimate the degree of environmental restoration sustainability with the emergy triangle as a reference.