Keywords: energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, energy utilisation, ecological footprint, modelling, urban centres, Canada, coal, natural gas, emissions reduction, electricity usage, carbon emissions, CO2, carbon dioxide
A model for assessment of energy utilisation within an urban centre
This paper presents development of a model for analysis of energy and exergy utilisation within an urban centre of Calgary, Canada. The analysis began with the detailed assessment of energy resource utilisation patterns and energy flows across six different energy consuming sectors, namely energy generation, residential, commercial, industrial, transportation and agricultural. For each sector, the energy and exergy efficiencies were determined. Calgary's overall energy and exergy efficiencies were found to be 40.9% and 15.7%, respectively. Thereafter, the developed model was used to identify energy and exergy losses in different sectors and potential areas for improvement. It was determined that, by switching coal with natural gas by 50%, the CO
2emissions can be reduced by 24.3%. In addition, as much as 31.5% reduction in emissions is also possible by reducing the electricity usage up to 50%.