Keywords: energy storage systems, plug–in HEVs, hybrid electric vehicles, PHEVs, battery lifetime estimation, battery ageing models, lithium–ion batteries, depth of discharge, temperature, weighted ampere–hour throughput modelling
A new life estimation method for lithium–ion batteries in plug–in hybrid electric vehicles applications
This paper presents a new approach to life estimation for lithium–ion batteries used in plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) applications. A new framework for battery life estimation is developed which investigates the effects of two primary factors of battery life reduction in PHEVs applications, namely, depth of discharge (DOD) and temperature (Tbatt), under typical driving conditions, driving habits, and average commute time of typical user over a year. This framework, whose development is built upon a weighted ampere–hour throughput model of the battery, is based on the novel concept of severity factor map which captures and quantifies the battery damage caused by different operating conditions. The proposed methodology can be a suitable tool to estimate battery life in terms of miles/year on–board of the vehicle.