Keywords: renewable energy, guarantees of origin, regional coordination, EU directives, European Union, member states, renewable electricity, green electricity, energy policy
A regional coordination framework for renewable energy policy in the European Union
In order to have a transparent market for renewable electricity in the European Union (EU), it is necessary to track the flow of renewable electricity. With this in mind, the European Commission introduced a concept called 'Guarantee of Origin' in Directive 2001/77/EC. However, the principle of subsidiarity – that policy is made by the lowest competent authority – turned out to be in conflict with the goal of a transparent and competitive market for renewable electricity. The diverging interests of the member states and a crude definition of guarantees of origin in the directive led to diverging implementations of the renewable energy policy in EU. This paper proposes a roadmap for regional coordination of renewable energy policy through the use of guarantees of origin as a standardised tracking mechanism. The roadmap simultaneously uses a top-down and bottom-up approach to improve coordination.