John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A screening study on the fate of fullerenes (nC60) and their toxic implications in natural freshwaters

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Increasing usage of fullerenes (C60) increases their opportunities to be released into the environment. For risk assessment, it is important to understand the environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of C60. In this study, fullerene settling was measured during a one‐year period with four different lake waters and an artificial freshwater, and D. magna immobilization and fullerene accumulation was also measured in each of the lake waters. Depending on the characteristics of the lake waters, fullerenes exhibited either extended water stability or settled rapidly, and in all waters, there was a fraction that remained stable after one year. Water stability was affected by quality and the molecular size distribution of dissolved natural organic matter (DNOM). Increasing DNOM molecular sizes with high aromatic content enhanced water stability. D. magna immobilization was generally quite low (under 20%) and highly variable after 24 and 48 h at initial fullerene concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Substantial settling occurred during the time period for acute toxicity assays (i.e., 48 h) which should be planned for when conducting toxicity assays. There were no significant differences in the quantity of accumulated fullerenes among the different lake waters at fullerene concentrations of 0.5 mg/L but there were differences at 2 mg/L. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2013 SETAC

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