Keywords: environmental management, environmental strategy, generic strategy, spatial mapping, modelling, corporate behaviour, UK corporate attitudes, United Kingdom, environmental behaviour
A spatial approach to mapping corporate environmental behaviour
Drawing on the findings of an ongoing major empirical study of UK corporate attitude, this paper presents an exploratory analysis designed to provide an analytical instrument that will enable the identification of influences acting on companies in this field. The model is therefore intended to be more than an audit tool. Key influences are identified as falling into three distinct categories: external factors, which include pressure derived from the market and from legal-regulatory requirements; mediating factors, which include attitudinal stimuli such as leadership and company ethos; and moderating factors, which include contextual issues such as opportunities to achieve reward, the effects of technology, and corporate capability. It is argued that there are infinite responses that a company could develop, and seven archetypal states, which are syntheses of actual attitudes and responses, are proposed. The model highlights the distinctive characteristics of each company type, in relation to key influences, and distinguishes between proactive, reactive and pragmatic companies. Additionally, the model indicates how changes to key influences allow companies to move between archetypes non-sequentially.