Keywords: Asta-Ja, sustainable development, environmental resources, Nepal, strategies, sustainability, environmental policies, economic policies
A strategic framework for environmental and sustainable development in Nepal
Using the framework of Asta-Ja, meaning eight 'Ja' - Nepali letter 'Ja', Jal (water), Jamin (land), Jungle (forest), Jadibuti (medicinal and aromatic plants), Jansakti (manpower), Janawar (animals), Jarajuri (plants) and Jalabayu (climate) in Nepal, this paper assesses challenges and constraints, and presents a strategic framework for environmental and sustainable development in Nepal. Also, this paper underscores the need for the convergence and mutual reinforcement of environmental and economic policies for sustainable development, and emphasises the importance of system-based, participatory, interdisciplinary and holistic approaches in using the Asta-Ja framework to achieve sustainable long-term development in Nepal. By avoiding the need to retrofit and correct short-sighted developmental projects when environmental problems arise, the Asta-Ja framework will optimise environmental, social and financial benefits.