A system dynamics-based conflict resolution model for river water quality management
Conflict is a disagreement among individuals or groups that differ in attitudes, beliefs, values or needs. Contemporary water resources management is a combined process of sharing water and resolving conflicts among decision makers and stakeholders. Stakeholders in this context refer to individuals, organizations, or institutions that have stakes in the outcome of decision related to water or assimilative capacity sharing, because they are either directly affected by the decision or have the power to influence or block the decisions (Wolf, 2002). Systems approach to conflict resolution is a new approach for water quality management in river systems. It uses the disciplines of systems thinking and simulation model to provide powerful alternative to traditional approaches to conflict resolution and classical river water quality management. A system approach to conflict resolution has been explored by Cobble and Huffman, (1999). Some elements of the systems approach have also been presented in the work of Bender and Simonovic (1996) and Simonovic and Bender (1996). Traditional waste-load allocation models have been formulated to minimize the total effluent treatment cost, while satisfying water quality standards throughout the system. Most of the classical models incorporate the uncer-tainties of waste-load allocation problems by choosing one set of design conditions that include particular low flow values, such as the seven-day average low flow with a 10-year return period (7Q10) and the maximum observed water temperature. In recent efforts (such as those developed by Ellis (1987), Burn (1989) and Fujiwara et al.