Progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target has generally been slow-paced in Ghana. This is particularly the case in rural areas where access to improved sanitation has increased by just 4% within two decades. This paper examines defecation practices as well as constraints and existing opportunities at both household and institutional levels in promoting in-house toilet construction. The study was conducted in three rural communities in the Tain district and drew on key informant interviews, focus group discussions, field observations and face-to-face interviews of 400 residents selected from 249 houses. The results showed the scarcity of in-house toilets, which means consequently open defecation and use of communal toilets are common practices. The need for in-house toilet facilities is high among property owners without them, mainly driven by the desire for comfort and safety. Barriers at the household level constraining latrine installation include ignorance of low-cost technologies, the perceived high cost of latrines and the low priority given to their ownership. Analysis of expenditure patterns at the local assembly shows low priority afforded to sanitation promotion, which is constrained by low donor support, lack of requisite logistics and poor human resource capacity. Existing opportunities for accelerating sanitation coverage in these study communities are examined both at the household and institutional levels, and best practices discussed.
Water safety plans: bridges and barriers to implementation in North Carolina
First developed by the World Health Organization, and now used in several countries, water safety plans (WSPs) are a multi-step, preventive process for managing drinking water hazards. While the beneficial impacts of WSPs have been documented in diverse countries, how to successfully implement WSPs in the United States remains a challenge. We examine the willingness and ability of water utility leaders to implement WSPs in the US state of North Carolina. Our findings show that water utilities have more of a...
What are the barriers to solar energy adoption?
The solar energy market is hampered by multiple barriers to adoption in the EU and worldwide, according to a new review. Researchers from Sweden and Spain found that lack of government commitment as well as various sociotechnical, management and economic barriers prevent photovoltaic technologies from being more readily adopted. The EU has a well-developed solar energy market compared to other regions of the world, yet generates only 3% of its energy from solar. Although the cost of producing photovoltaic...
Inventory Protected using Bird Barrier’s StealthNet
For more than five years, starling and sparrow droppings created a mess on inventory being delivered to a loading dock. Each day, 15 – 20 trucks arrived to deliver supplies to this university in the southeast. The overhang provided shelter to the birds, whose debris landed on deliveries and campus police vehicles. The maintenance staff had to power wash the area on a regular basis.Scare Owls and audio scare devices were installed to deter the birds, but they weren’t effective. The university determined...
Permeation analyser provides validation to packaging film barrier performance
Established in 2013 by bringing together the 5 smaller groups of Exopack US, Britton Group, Paccor, Paragon Flexibles and Kobusch, Coveris is now one of the world’s leading suppliers of high performance flexible and rigid packaging for the consumer goods and food service sector. With more than 8,500 global employees and 60 strategically located facilities, Coveris is dedicated to providing solutions that enhance the safety, quality and convenience of products we use every day. Coveris manufacture flexible...
Instrumented Safety: The right balance
The different functional safety guides and standards such as IEC61508/511, which impose formal schemes for the safety instrumented functions (SIF), have brought significant safety gains to the process industry over the last 30 years. Still, we can observe a drift in the application of those standards, which often leads to increased costs, loss of operability, and, more worrying, a false perception of reduction of process incident risk. Use of too few instrumented safety loops can be insufficient to “compens...