Accepted Inspection Methods of Process Sewers.
Courtesy of EnTech Engineering Company
During the process of refining there is discharge of hazardous waste, this coupled with aging pipeline infrastructure creates a potential where waste can leak into the environment posing catastrophic threats to life. Federal agencies such as the EPA are beginning to penalize refineries that do not take necessary measures of disposing their waste. These refineries are subject to consent decrees resulting in millions of dollars being spent to identify locations of leaks or improper disposal. When inspecting buried refinery infrastructure safety is of the utmost importance. Traditional methods such as Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) and Hydrostatic Testing require access to the pipe which can cause both safety and operational issues. Thereby, using technologies that are non-destructive would be ideal, the technologies also need to be effective and efficient without being a hindrance to refinery operations. Infrared Energy Pattern Analysis (IR-EPA) would be considered one such application.
IR-EPA is based on the law of conservation of energy: where energy is neither created or destroyed; it simply moves from one area to another. During the day the earth absorbs the sun’s energy and at night the energy is released back into the atmosphere. IR-EPA measures the flow of energy: commonly referred to as energy differential or temperature differential. During a process sewer leak, fluids escape a pipe and leaks into the surrounding soils. Due to this, the soils now affected by the leak have a different thermal conductance and thermal capacitance compared to the dry soils creating energy patterns that can be detected with IR-EPA.
GE Leakwise Application Notes: Leak/Spill Detection for Above Ground Oil Storage Tanks
Leakwise Oil-in-Water Detection and Monitoring Systems are being used in a variety of applications to address health and safety directives, environmental regulations, and economic necessity. Oil and fuel storage facilities worldwide have over 15 years of experience depending on these reliable systems. Read more about the ways Leakwise can be used to monitor and detect leaks in or near above ground storage tanks.
Komax teflon lined mixer simplifies acid injection for power plant
A major source of waste water in many power plants is the waste stream that results from ion exchange used for demineralizing the boiler feed water. The alkaline regeneration waste stream produced by the ion exchange process requires the addition of an acid to this stream before discharge from the plant. Regulatory authorities typically require the effluent to have a near neutral pH before disposal in the sewer system. A Utah based energy company uses concentrated sulfuric acid (98%) to economically neutralize...
Quantifying Sub-Surface Discharges from Individual Sewer Defects
ABSTRACTThe California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Santa Ana Region (RWQCB) required wastewater collection agencies in Orange County to report discharges from “pipe breaks, leaking sewer pipes and joints, and other subsurface discharges of wastewater.” The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD), in conjunction with a research team from University of California, Irvine (UCI), developed a device to quantify the subsurface discharge of individual sewer defects. The instrument developed to measure discharge...
Feedstock recycling from plastic and thermoset fractions of used computers (I): pyrolysis
The increasing production of computers, the progress in their performance, and the shorter time between innovation and production has led to increasing numbers of obsolete products. It has thus become necessary to recover some materials from old computers and to protect the environment from a new type of pollution. Such recycling is difficult because of the diversity of polymeric materials used, e.g., thermoplastics (polystyrene or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and thermosets (epoxy resins), and the relatively...
PORT PROTECTION - Port and harbour ROV inspection system
“PROTECTING SEAPORTS AND PORT facilities against the threat of terrorism is imperative. The terrorist attacks have resulted in a renewed focus on the security of our transportation systems.” Dept. of Transportation - Maritime Administration. [Port Security Grants news release, June 17, 2002]. Terrorism is a real and hidden danger that regrettable confronts all aspects of Western society. The scope and frequency of the threat is impossible to gauge, but the reality of the 9/11, Bali, Madrid and Beslan atrocities...
Atlanta upgrades to InfoWorks CS to aid environmental program
The City of Atlanta, Georgia, in the USA, has purchased InfoWorks CS to help it meet stringent US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Georgia State Environmental Protection Division (EPD) requirements for discharge of its wastewaters to the Chattahoochee River. The Chattahoochee, one of the smallest rivers in the US supplying a metropolitan area, provides 80% of the city’s water needs. This means it is vital that the river remains as clean as possible but, like many cities, Atlanta has faced challenges...
Centrifuge focus: the alternative to ‘new` – upgrade and refurbishment
Untitled Document Why bother? The reasons to refurbish or upgrade an existing centrifuge are as many and varied as the processes on which they operate. To obtain the best possible result from any refurbishment or upgrade project, it is of vital importance that the centrifuge refurbishing company has a complete and accurate understanding of the user`s process and operating requirement. With regular maintenance, a centrifuge is capable of many years reliable and trouble-free service. Only after...
This is a collection of various cases where the 2D resistivity imaging method pioneered by Advanced Geosciences Inc have been successfully applied. Click on a section below and you will be shown a full 2D resistivity imaging brochure detailing the case in question. Acknowledgement: These cases have been submitted by satisfied customers whom we thank for permission to publish their data on the web. Each detailed brochure will have a citation for the source of the...
Localizing Fugitive Emissions Management
Untitled Document Louisiana Petrochemical Facility Employs Essential FEMS In Move To End Third-Party Fugitive Emissions Contract The Challenge: Monitoring thousands of tags for Leak Detection And Repair (LDAR) compliance is no easy task. Condea Vista`s 120-acre petrochemical plant in Westlake, La., has more than 40,000 Fugitive Emissions Management System (FEMS) tags, including some that must be checked monthly. All of them have to be tested at least once a year....
REFRIGERANT RULES: HOW NOT TO GET ZAPPED BY PROPOSED CHANGES
Refrigerant management requirements are likely to become even stricter. Are you and your customers ready? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new rules and record-keeping requirements that add to those already in effect concerning servicing, maintaining, repairing, or disposing of air conditioning or refrigeration equipment (Section 608 of the Clean Air Act). The EPA now requires all owners/operators of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment containing more than 50 lbs. of refrigera...
What`s the Plan? - Designing, analyzing and updating your company`s emergency management procedures
Emergency management is the practice of driving the risk of doing business as close to zero as possible. An emergency can strike any time, without warning. The best way to manage an emergency is to plan for it, practice response procedures and take precautions to avoid dangerous situations. When incidents occur, respond to that emergency efficiently and effectively, perform root cause analysis and modify contingency plans, starting the cycle over again. The goal is to respond to an emergency with minimal impact...
Accelerating Aerobic Biodegradation of GRO/DRO: A Five-Year Study (PDF)
Gasoline Range Organics (GRO) and Diesel Range Organics (DRO) contaminated the aquifer underlying a warehouse/equipment storage facility in Homer, AK. This contamination originated from leaks in underground storage tanks located in the northern section of the site. Groundwater flow at the site is controlled in large part by a finger drain running through the facility. This finger drain, cut four feet into the ground and filled with coarse gravel, is responsible for the majority of contaminant migration. This...
Ten Good Reasons To Build Dynamic Models
Over the last ten years computer technology and network modelling software have developed beyond all recognition, providing the necessary hardware and software tools to assist water distribution engineers in their design and planning work utilising fully dynamic all-mains models. However, many water supply companies still make important decisions based on static models that represent an arbitrary simplification of the network and probably contains incomplete and inaccurate demand information. The commercial...
Lower Cost, Higher Environmental Performance Products: Dematerialising Furniture
Basic Information For more than a decade, industrial designer Jan Dranger carried out an enormous amount of research and development work aimed at creating a totally new concept in furniture which is comfortable, inexpensive, durable, and environmentally sound. The breakthrough came in 1993 when a solution was patented that had all the desired qualities. Seeing the commercial potential, Jan Dranger formed, together with IKEA, the development company news design DFE AB. (DFE stands for Design For Environment). Und...
Where I live, in eastern, northern, southeastern Pennsylvania (you figure it out), nights are beginning to chill. I`ve noticed this for two reasons. First, the temperature is dipping below 50. Second, insects have begun finding their way inside the house. We capture most of the little buggers and release them but sooner or later someone reaches for a pesticide. We`ve already dealt with fleas on my son`s cat who recently moved home with him. Now, let`s understand something. Pesticide is a general term for more...
Mercury Emissions From The Disposal of Fluorescent Lamps
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making available to the public a study containing information relating to its Proposed Rule addressing the management of mercury-containing lamps under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C hazardous waste management system published in the Federal Register on July 27, 1994, 59 FR 39288. The study consists of an electronic model and report that provides an assessment of mercury emissions from the management of mercury-containing lamps under different...
Introduction: Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of oxygen. Because some oxygen will be present in any pyrolytic system, nominal oxidation will occur. If volatile or semivolatile materials are present in the waste, thermal desorption will also occur. Pyrolysis transforms...
Common Treatment Technologies for Radionuclides in Soil, Sediment, and Sludge
Unlike organic contaminants (and similar to metals), radionuclides cannot be destroyed or degraded; therefore, remediation technologies applicable to radionuclides involve separation, concentration/volume reduction, and/or immobilization. The most commonly used treatment technology for radionuclides in soil, sediment, and sludge is solidification/stabilization (S/S). This treatment technology is described briefly below. Solidification processes produce monolithic blocks of waste with high structural integrity....
Common Treatment Technologies for Nonhalogenated SVOCs in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
It may be necessary to know other subsurface information to remediate nonhalogenated semivolatile organics in water. Treatability studies may be required to determine the contaminant biodegradability for any biodegradation technologies. Treatability studies are also necessary to ensure that the contaminated ground water can be treated effectively at the design flow. A subsurface geologic characterization would be particularly useful to any isolation or stabilization technologies. Ground water models are also...
A Citizen`s Guide to Natural Attenuation
What is natural attenuation?Natural attenuation makes use of natural processes to contain the spread of contamination from chemical spills and reduce the concentration and amount of pollutants at contaminated sites. Natural attenuation—also referred to as intrinsic remediation, bioattenuation, or intrinsic bioremediation—is an in situ treatment method. This means that environmental contaminants are left in place while natural attenuation works on them. Natural attenuation is often used as one part of a site...
A Worker Exposed to Spray Resin: Hazardous Substances Case Study
This case study demonstrates what you, as a worker, may expect when your employer takes various steps as required by the Hazardous Substances Compliance Standard (formerly the Regulation). Your work area will require an assessment of the risks it poses to your health, and you may have monitoring and health surveillance provided. These all produce factual data for control measures to eliminate risks or reduce them to an acceptable level. However, the Hazardous Substances Compliance Standard is not the only...
A Citizen`s Guide to Innovative Treatment Technologies
What are innovative treatment technologies? Treatment technologies are chemical, biological, or physical processes applied to hazardous waste or contaminated materials to permanently change their condition. This Citizen’s Guide focuses on treatment technologies for soil, sludge, sediment, and debris. Treatment technologies destroy contaminants or change them so that they are no longer hazardous or, at least, are less hazardous. They may reduce the amount of contaminated material at a site, remove the component...
Adsorption System Treating Contaminated Water: Leaking Tanks near Brampton Endanger Groundwater
Untitled Document Summary: During the spring of 1989, the owners of a combined bulk and gasoline service station in Brampton, Ontario discovered leaks from one of the site`s underground storage tanks and from a section of piping supplying the above-ground tanks. Diesel fuel and gasoline were migrating into groundwater as well as escaping into storm sewers and contaminating a nearby creek. Company officials estimated that more than 46.500 litres of free diesel product had leaked...
Asbestos in Buildings: Practical Guidelines for Building Owners
Practical guidelines for building owners Overview Friable asbestos-containing materials are present in many public and commercial buildings, schools and factories built before the mid-70`s. Regulations in Ontario and some other provinces require building owners and property managers to put in place asbestos control programs, once they are aware of the presence of friable asbestos-containing materials in their buildings. In developing an asbestos control program, one or more of the following tasks should be...
A Model Study of the Influence of Stress on the Thermal Conductivity of Dry Sand
An equivalent resistor model was investigated to determine its suitability for describing the thermal conductivity of dry granular soils. The suitability of the model for incorporating the influence of stress on thermal conductivity was also examined. The parameters necessary to specify the model were determined experimentally by fitting the model to measured values of thermal conductivity from two different granular soils. Measurements were made with a thermal probe located in the center of cylindrical specimens...