John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Acute toxicity of binary‐metal mixtures of copper, zinc, and nickel to Pimephales promelas: Evidence of more‐than‐additive effect

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Metal mixture toxicity has been studied for decades. However, the results are not consistent, thus making it difficult for ecological risk assessment and regulation purposes. The objective of the present study was to use a systematic experimental design to characterize the toxicity of binary‐metal mixture of Cu, Zn, and Ni to Pimephales promelas, typically to determine if the effect of these binary‐metal mixtures to P. promelas is more‐than‐additive. Standard 96 h toxicity tests were conducted with larval P. promelas based on USEPA methods to determine metal mixture effects. All experiments were conducted in synthetic moderately hard water with no addition of dissolved organic matter. Three different effect analysis approaches; the MixTox Model, the Finney Model, and the Toxic unit method were used for comparison. Results of the present study indicate that the toxicity of Cu + Zn, Cu + Ni, and Zn + Ni mixtures to P. promelas was more‐than‐additive. Among the three mixtures, the effect of the Cu + Ni mixture was the most profound. Results of the present study are useful for model application such as the metal mixture Biotic Ligand Model. More research should be conducted to determine the mechanisms of acute and chronic toxicity of metal mixtures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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