Chitosan (CS) and nanocomposite 5%bentonite/chitosan (5%Bt/CS) prepared from the natural biopolymer CS were tested to remove Cu(II) ions using a batch adsorption experiment at various temperatures (25, 35 and 45°C). X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were used in CS and the nanocomposite characterisation. This confirmed the exfoliation of bentonite (Bt) to form the nanocomposite. The adsorption kinetics of copper on both solids was found to follow a pseudo-second-order law at each studied temperature. The Cu(II) adsorption capacity increased as the temperature increased from 25 to 45°C for nanocomposite adsorbent but slightly increased for CS. The data were confronted to the nonlinear Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson models. It was found that the experimental data fitted very well the Langmuir isotherm over the whole temperature and concentration ranges. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for the Cu(II) was 404–422 mg/g for CS and 282–337 mg/g for 5%Bt/CS at 25–45°C. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The complexation of Cu(II) with NH2 and C = O groups as active sites was found to be the main mechanism in the adsorption processes.
5 Essential tips about snowmobile safety
Extreme conditions and fast speeds are what make riding so much fun, but they come with risks. When you ride with your family and friends, you need to be aware of potential risks. A modern snowmobile can weigh over 600 pounds and travel up to 90 mph. Due to poor judgment, excess speed, and alcohol — approximately 200 deaths and 14,000 injuries occur every year. But this does not mean riding is dangerous. You can ensure that you have a safe and enjoyable trip while protecting yourself from the potential...
Top 5 incineration myth busters
There are a lot of myths and misconceptions out there when it comes to incinerators and with many people feeling uncertain of what they actually need when in a position to purchase a incinerator, it is sometimes difficult to tell fact from fiction. Every day we have multiple phone calls from existing and potential customers asking the same questions that have arisen from receiving false information through researching the Internet and/or our competitors. Below are the top 5 myths that we seem to debunk everyday....
Top 5 ways marine researchers are currently using Underwater Drones
Marine researchers around the world are utilizing Deep Trekker Underwater Drones (or ROVs) in their marine projects; here are the top 5 applications being used today. In a few weeks, the world will gather in San Diego, California for the Oceanology International North America exhibition. It will bring together water industry professionals, manufacturers, educators, government representatives and will connect them with marine science and ocean technology communities. Source: Oceanology International North...
5 ways to conserve water this winter
Water conservation is something we harp on during the summertime, but what about during the winter? When the irrigation systems shut down, it’s easy toput conservation on the back burner while indoor water waste continues to occur. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the average person uses 80-100 gallons per day for everything from cooking, to showering and flushing the toilet. While there are a number of ways to integrate water conservation into your daily routine, here are five tips that will...
The 5 Coolest Energy Saving Solutions for Supermarkets
For this 2nd instalment of our industry focus series, we’re looking at energy saving solutions forsupermarkets. Theholidays are upon us, and for grocery store managers, things are already going nutcrackers. Shopping-crazed customers are leaving fridges open, the heatis blasting to keep those holiday shoppers warm, and opening hours are extended… But what if I told you this festive madness could work in your favour? Or that the holiday season is actually the BEST time to save energy (and consequently,...