An Air Pollution Monitoring and Surveillance Program (BAQMAP) is being developed, installed and tested for Botswana. The project is funded partly by NORAD and partly by the Botswana Government.
The project is undertaken in a co-operation between Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) in Norway and Department of Mines (DoM) in Botswana.
NILU shall provide professional assistance in the fields of:
Siting and establishment of an air pollution monitoring network.
Laboratory techniques, methods and routines.
Quality control and quality assurance procedures (QA/QC).
Emission data bases.
Statistical data analysis and reporting.
Atmospheric dispersion model estimates for air quality planning and impact assessment analysis.
The key features of the modern environmental information system is the integrated approach that enables the user in a user friendly way not only to access data quickly, but also to use the data directly in the assessment and in the planning of actions.
The demand of the integrated system to enable monitoring, forecasting and warning of pollution situations has been and will be increasing in the future. The data may also be used for generating input to dispersion models that enables exposure estimates, impact assessment and the evaluation of impacts to health and the environment.
One of the major air pollution sources in Botswana is the Selebe Phikwe BCL smelter, which is estimated to emit about 300 000 tonnes of SO2 per year. Model estimates, which have been performed in a co-operation between experts at NILU and DoM, indicate that a maximum annual average concentration can be found north-west of the smelter area. From preliminary results it is indicated that typical average concentrations of more than 200 µg/m3 can be found at distances up to about 7 km north-west of the smelter eara.
The first results from the monitoring programme also support that episodic high concentrations of SO2 have been observed at a site located about 15 km north-west of the Selebe Phikwe copper smelters.
The complete and modern monitoring system for Botswana also includes the larger city areas and will also cover emissions from waste burning, energy sources and traffic. The programme is proceeding to become a planning tool for environmental improvement, including consequence analysis and impact assessment capabilities.
The example above shows that in December 1996 six observations (1 h-average concentrations during 0.8% of the time) exceeded the World Health Organization Air Quality guideline value of 360 µg/m3 at Mmadinare, which is located about 15 km north-west of the copper smelter. They were all observed with winds from around south-east.
Compressed air is used in many manufacturing processes for many different reasons, from the actuation and control of pneumatic valves and cylinders to the operation of process machinery and tooling. It can also be used as a transport medium for bulk materials or as a purge gas. For all its uses it is nonetheless expensive. This is why, through detailed monitoring, a business can enjoy the financial, environmental and operational benefits of an efficient and effective compressed air system.
Our team of experts has been hard at work and has just released an industry-leading report detailing Forklift Emissions in Warehouses: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of different engine conditions on exhaust gas emissions and to observe the effect that forklift emissions have on the ambient air quality of the warehouse.
Critical Monitoring of Forklift Emissions and Warehouse Ambient Air Quality
The study was conducted over a period of 200...
First CaseTHE PROBLEM:How to monitor air quality from 1 spot in 12 different towns ?THE SOLUTIONThe airToxic PID with the communication protocol MODBUS allows to transfer the results of the 12 instruments to a central roomRESULTS
airToxic PID allows to have an improved sensitivity
Better follow up of the polluting compounds
Centralised information with the communication protocol MODBUS
Auto calibration with result storage and calibration history
Cylinder with BTEX at 100 ppb is used for automatic calibration...
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recently issued draft guidance on ‘Air pollution - outdoor air quality and health.’ In the following article Jim Mills, Managing Director of Air Monitors Ltd, explains why there will need to be more funding for monitoring if the mitigation measures mentioned in the guidance are to be implemented effectively. Jim also highlights the close relationship between outdoor air quality and the (often ignored) problems with indoor air quality.
In the manufacturing of the containerised plants, Linde Cryoplants Ltd utilise the Systech Illinois EC923 trace oxygen analyser to monitor the purity of the nitrogen.
With 125 years of experience and expertise in the field of cryogenics, Linde Cryoplants is a leading manufacturer of air separation plants. Their compact Nitrogen and Oxygen generators provide custom-made and standard supply solutions for both traditional and innovative applications in many different industries.
Linde Cryoplants have over 150...