An Air Pollution Monitoring and Surveillance Program (BAQMAP) is being developed, installed and tested for Botswana. The project is funded partly by NORAD and partly by the Botswana Government.
The project is undertaken in a co-operation between Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) in Norway and Department of Mines (DoM) in Botswana.
NILU shall provide professional assistance in the fields of:
Siting and establishment of an air pollution monitoring network.
Laboratory techniques, methods and routines.
Quality control and quality assurance procedures (QA/QC).
Emission data bases.
Statistical data analysis and reporting.
Atmospheric dispersion model estimates for air quality planning and impact assessment analysis.
The key features of the modern environmental information system is the integrated approach that enables the user in a user friendly way not only to access data quickly, but also to use the data directly in the assessment and in the planning of actions.
The demand of the integrated system to enable monitoring, forecasting and warning of pollution situations has been and will be increasing in the future. The data may also be used for generating input to dispersion models that enables exposure estimates, impact assessment and the evaluation of impacts to health and the environment.
One of the major air pollution sources in Botswana is the Selebe Phikwe BCL smelter, which is estimated to emit about 300 000 tonnes of SO2 per year. Model estimates, which have been performed in a co-operation between experts at NILU and DoM, indicate that a maximum annual average concentration can be found north-west of the smelter area. From preliminary results it is indicated that typical average concentrations of more than 200 µg/m3 can be found at distances up to about 7 km north-west of the smelter eara.
The first results from the monitoring programme also support that episodic high concentrations of SO2 have been observed at a site located about 15 km north-west of the Selebe Phikwe copper smelters.
The complete and modern monitoring system for Botswana also includes the larger city areas and will also cover emissions from waste burning, energy sources and traffic. The programme is proceeding to become a planning tool for environmental improvement, including consequence analysis and impact assessment capabilities.
The example above shows that in December 1996 six observations (1 h-average concentrations during 0.8% of the time) exceeded the World Health Organization Air Quality guideline value of 360 µg/m3 at Mmadinare, which is located about 15 km north-west of the copper smelter. They were all observed with winds from around south-east.
AbstractAmbient measurements of elemental species concentrations were made using an online elemental monitor at an air pollution monitoring station in Gwangju, Korea to evaluate the performance of the monitor for near–real time PM2.5 elemental monitoring and identify possible sources of the observed elements. This study also demonstrates the utility of integrating hourly elemental data with the meteorological data to better understand the sources of elements. Good agreement between the online and filter&ndash...
There are many types of air quality monitors available, but which one is the best choice for measuring gaseous air pollutant concentrations? There are two classes of such air quality monitors: sampling monitors and in-situ monitors (“in-situ” = “in the original position”). Sampling monitors utilises a manifold through which the air to be analysed is pumped. A small air sample is then enclosed in a cell where its molecular content can be analysed. The analysis method varies depending on...
ABSTRACTIn most of the industrialized countries worldwide, increasingly stringent environmental regulations require the continuous reduction of a wide range of emission sources and components. Despite local variations concerning concentrations, absolute emission quantity, target priorities and timetables, regulations typically require active compliance and proof thereof. The impact of more stringent regulation requires, in addition to point source, frequent area monitoring of target constituents. Whereas point...
Compressed air is used in many manufacturing processes for many different reasons, from the actuation and control of pneumatic valves and cylinders to the operation of process machinery and tooling. It can also be used as a transport medium for bulk materials or as a purge gas. For all its uses it is nonetheless expensive. This is why, through detailed monitoring, a business can enjoy the financial, environmental and operational benefits of an efficient and effective compressed air system.
Our team of experts has been hard at work and has just released an industry-leading report detailing Forklift Emissions in Warehouses: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of different engine conditions on exhaust gas emissions and to observe the effect that forklift emissions have on the ambient air quality of the warehouse.
Critical Monitoring of Forklift Emissions and Warehouse Ambient Air Quality