The GIS based air quality planning system, AirQUIS, represent a perfect platform for developing numerical air quality forecasting.
The Air Pollution Surveillance and Information System, AirQUIS, has been developed on a Geographical Information System (GIS) platform. The main objective has been to enable direct data and information transfer and obtain a remote quality control of the data collection. The system combine monitoring, data presentation and modelling in one package, which enable the user not only to present and evaluate the present situation, but also to undertake environmental planning for a sustainable future. The GIS platform, on which the system is operated, provides easy access to the data and gives a perfect and easily understandable data presentation tool.
A major part of the AirQUIS system is the dispersion models for emission inventories, concentration and exposure estimates. The models covers air pollution on all scales; traffic in street canyons and along roads, industrial emissions and gridded pollution from household etc. within the urban areas and on a regional scale.
The NILU developed source oriented numerical dispersion model EPISODE calculates spatial distribution of hourly concentration of selected indicators, such as SO2, NO2 and suspended particles. The NILU models ROADAIR and CONTI-LENK are used to estimate sub grid concentrations close to roads within the square grid. A puff-trajectory part of the model is used to calculate the influence of point sources.
To obtain a good description of the wind field in a complex terrain, NILU has included a terrain influenced wind field model. This model is fast and can on hourly basis perform inhomogeneous wind fields as input to the dispersion models for emissions to the atmosphere.
Numerical air quality and episode forecast
Numerical forecast models have been developed to combine estimated wind and turbulence with numerical dispersion models to forecast air quality into the next 24 or 48 hours. At NILU the forecasted wind fields have been used as input to the AirQUIS air pollution dispersion modelling system to estimate concentration distributions for the next 24 and 48 hours.
An improved modelling system for air pollution forecasting have been developed and tested for the 5 cities participating in the “Better City” programme. The new models involve a combination of numerical forecast models and numerical air pollution dispersion models. The development has been a co-operation between NILU and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI).
The numerical weather forecast model HIRLAM50 with 50-km resolution has been used to estimate and forecast the weather conditions such as wind and turbulence for the next 24 hours. The results from the HIRLAM model is then used as input to the MM5 model to produce a more detailed wind field. The input to the AirQuis dispersion models is given in a 1 km grid. The procedure requires large computer capacities and is thus fairly cost consuming for routine and daily operations
Typical for most of the urban areas of Norway are the topograph-ically complex surroundings with rather complicated wind patterns and local/mesoscale circulations. This lead to the necessity of enabling weather forecast modelling on a very fine scale compared to the normal synoptic scale weather prediction models. For the Norwegian cities Oslo and Bergen, which were the first cities to test the models, the grid size selected was 1 km. The weather prediction models are estimating three-dimensional wind and turbulence fields which are then fed automatically into the NILU “Episode” air pollution dispersion model.
Information to the public
Information of air quality in urban areas has been issued to the public on a daily basis described in terms of “very good”, “good”, “poor” etc. Many European cities already provide this type of information.
The EU-project EN 4002 IRENIE has been coordinated by NILU. The project wants to provide European-wide information services for the European Environment Agency (EEA) and its customers such as the European Commission (EC), national environmental protection authorities and for the public, and to demonstrate and evaluate the telematic options for increasing the efficiency of flows of data and information at the local, national and international level.
NILU also participates in the European research project APNEE. The main objective of this project is to establish user-friendly information services for the citizens and communities to improve the quality of life in Europe. Modern information systems as AirQUIS will be the basis for enabling citizens to easier access and exchange of information about air pollution in urban regions. Information will be distributed by mobile telecommunication system such as SMS, WAP and Voice. It is also a real-time information, early warning and forecasting system for of air pollution across borders.
The AirQUIS system, which is installed in Fredrikstad, serve as a basis for the Internet application. AirQUIS is a management and decision support system for air and water quality management. The system can be used as a management tool for planners, an information tool for the public and an expert system for specialists. AirQUIS provides a geographic information system (GIS) interface for the integration and display of spatial data, including air and water quality and quantity monitoring and results from modeling.
Quality of groundwater is as important as quantity. For effective planning and management of groundwater resources, groundwater vulnerability assessment is most significant. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the groundwater vulnerable zones of Nagpur city, using Modified DRASTIC methods within a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. DRASTIC method has been modified using land use/land cover parameter; weight of the parameters was modified using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and...
There is an increasing awareness that drinking water contributes to sporadic gastrointestinal illness (GI) in high income countries of the northern hemisphere. A literature search was conducted in order to review: (1) methods used for investigating the effects of public drinking water on GI; (2) evidence of possible dose–response relationship between sporadic GI and drinking water consumption; and (3) association between sporadic GI and factors affecting drinking water quality. Seventy-four articles were selected,...
TORC Oil & Gas Ltd is an intermediate producer that specializes in high quality light oil opportunities in the Western Canadian sedimentary basin.
TORC had no reporting capability that provided an overall view of project status, just well lists and columns of field data in the master spreadsheet. Moreover, adding projects or bringing new consultants on board was too burdensome. This messy process was frustrating and caused low morale.
HSE Manager Jim Gordon and his team reviewed several GIS and project...
CEQUEAU is a process-based hydrological model capable of simulating river flows and temperatures. Despite an active user base, no facility yet exists for the automatic assembly and input of watershed data required for flow simulations. CEQUEAU can therefore be time-consuming to implement, particularly on large (≥104 km2) watersheds. We detail a new MATLAB toolbox designed to remove this key limitation by automatically computing CEQUEAU's key drainage direction and physiographic inputs from geographic information...
Water scarcity has become a serious global problem. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand land use changes in watershed areas and their impact on river flows. This study models the impact of land use changes on river flows in the Arror watershed in Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. The primary study sources included remotely sensed and socio-economic data. Landsat 5 thematic mappers for 1986, 2000 and 2012 (resolution 30 m) were used. A 90 m Digital Elevation Model resolution was used to delineate the...