All Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) remediation products ARE NOT THE SAME. The MAJOR DIFFERENCE between Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (eZVI) and other ZVI products is the physical structure of the eZVI product, which is a water-in-oil emulsion. This structure makes the eZVI product hydrophobic, and therefore it is fully miscible with source material in situ. The water on the interior of the eZVI is the hydrogen donor for abiotic reductive dechlorination reactions to proceed. Without a hydrogen donor, abiotic reactions that occur on the surfaces of the ZVI particles will not proceed.