Alternative Fuel from Waste
Alternative Fuel From Waste
Municipal waste has always been seen by the public as the foul-smelling waste that nobody wants near home.
In the last decades due to the cost increasing of raw materials for heating and electric energy production, it has begun to evaluate and use waste as an “alternative” energy source.
But we should not forget that the greatest resource in the waste management industry, is the recycling.
The reuse of secondary materials such as plastic, paper, will further limit the need of raw materials thanks to the selection and recovery of these materials from municipal waste.
For this reason, also the international regulations are changing year by year on the waste treatment, that has to follow the line of:
- Reduction of Production
- Reduction of Dangerousness
Recovery of Precious Metal Catalysts - A New Process Using Supercritical Water Oxidation
Up to now, the recovery of precious metals used as catalysts in chemical processes has involved the use of incineration. Now, however, a British-Swedish joint venture has developed a process which uses supercritical water oxidation instead, which provides many economic and environmental advantages. Precious metals are used extensively in catalysts in a wide range of industrial chemical processes. Sometimes they are used in a homogeneous form, but more often fixed to a solid support for ease of handling. In many...
Industrial Solid Waste Disposal in China
Abstract This paper investigates the current situation of industrial solid waste disposal in China. Recent Chinese literature about industrial solid waste disposal in China has been revieved and data are analysed on the amount of industrial solid waste production and disposal in Wuhan City in 1992. The results show a rapid increase in the total amount of industrial solid wastes in China: It was about 580 million tonnes in 1990 and could reach 750 million tonnes in 2000. The total amount of industrial solid waste...
Advanced Water Treatment Technologies May Bring Purified Water to San Diego
`In four years, half of San Diego may be filling its glasses with tap water that once ran through its toilets,` reported the San Diego Union-Tribune recently. A plan to mix `repurified water` with the City`s raw drinking water reservoir could become a reality, thanks to the wonders of water treatment technology. Such a possibility elicits various reactions including disgust, marvel and fear. Although the public generally trusts and admires modern technology, politicians and even scientists fear the grave repercuss...
San Francisco Takes Residential Organics Collection Full-Scale
After two and a half years of conducting a variety of pilot residential curbside organics collection programs that included food and soiled paper, the City and County of San Francisco (referred to hereafter as “the City”) and Sunset Scavenger Company are commencing a citywide rollout of the Fantastic Three Program. This new, innovative program will include the separate collection and composting of residential organics, consisting of all food scraps, soiled paper and yard trimmings, from nearly three-quarters of...
Introduction: In this process, vacuum extraction is used to remove contaminants from soils. After condensation, contaminants are mixed with a semiconductor catalyst such (e.g., titanium dioxide), and fed through a reactor which is illuminated by sunlight. Ultraviolet light activates the catalyst, which results in the formation of reactive chemicals known as `radicals`. These radicals are powerful oxidizers that break down the contaminants into non-toxic by-products such as carbon dioxide and water. A big...
Modification of the Hazardous Waste Program: Hazardous Waste Lamps. Final Rule - July 6, 1999
Today`s final rule adds hazardous waste lamps to the federal list of universal wastes regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Handlers of universal wastes are subject to less stringent standards for storing, transporting, and collecting these wastes. The Agency has concluded that regulating spent hazardous waste lamps as a universal waste under 40 CFR Part 273 will lead to better management of these lamps and will facilitate compliance with hazardous waste requirements. Today`s final...
Backyard Composting Evaluated in New York City
Diversion data following distribution of bins indicate that home composting probably won’t make a significant dent in New York City’s waste stream, but can more than pay its way and boost recycling awareness. New York City may not normally be associated with yards and gardens, but there are good reasons to study backyard composting’s effect on waste diversion, especially because the impending closure of the city’s last landfill in 2001 means that nearly 12,000 tons/day of residential waste will have to be...
Composting Food Residuals on the Farm
A county agency and a farmer in Vermont have teamed up to collect and compost food residuals and other organics. The Rutland County Solid Waste District (RCSWD), which is responsible for managing MSW for 16 cities and towns, began planning the food residuals composting program in December, 1996 with the Rutland Natural Resource Conservation District, one of 14 districts in Vermont that promotes agriculture, water quality and economic development. The conservation district canvassed area farms to determine which...
Minimizing Festival Trash
The Whole Earth Festival at the University of California-Davis is a student-organized event that takes place annually in early May. The weekend attendance is approximately 30,000 people, with 16 food vendors and 100-plus craft booths. One major emphasis of the festival is environmental sustainability. To minimize waste generation, an integrated solid waste prevention strategy was conceptualized and implemented. The components were to: Exclude all materials from the system that were not easily biodegradable,...
Entrepreneurs Expand Markets for Recycled Products
Beyond Waste in Santa Rosa, California demonstrates that reuse deconstruction in the mainstream construction industry can be a money-making prospect — by getting paid to take the building apart and from the sale of recovered materials. Beyond Waste’s first “high profile” project was at the Presidio, a former Army base located on the south shore of the Golden Gate entrance to the San Francisco Bay. In 1994, the Army turned the Presidio over to the National Park Service, which was directed by the Clinton administrati...
Environmental Sensors in Waste Management
Issue: As part of an increasing sentiment among European consumers that environmental protection is important, concern about the impact of landfill is growing. Sensor technology makes it possible to measure and control inputs to landfill sites and pollutants arising from them. However, the exploitation - or uptake - of such technology has been lower than expected in the waste management sector. Relevance: Coordinated European science and technology policies can help improve exploitation of sensor technology, and...
Mercury Emissions From The Disposal of Fluorescent Lamps
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making available to the public a study containing information relating to its Proposed Rule addressing the management of mercury-containing lamps under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C hazardous waste management system published in the Federal Register on July 27, 1994, 59 FR 39288. The study consists of an electronic model and report that provides an assessment of mercury emissions from the management of mercury-containing lamps under different...
Energy Efficiency, Pollution Prevention, and the Bottom Line
Introduction For many years, efforts to promote energy efficiency and pollution prevention (P2) traveled on parallel paths. Most energy efficiency advocates considered only the energy savings aspects of their projects and most proponents of P2 did not include energy on their list of sources of pollution. More recently, the two groups promoting energy efficiency and P2 have begun to realize the synergies of working together. Energy efficiency projects often have non-energy P2 benefits and P2 projects often save...
Common Treatment Technologies for Nonhalogenated SVOCs in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
It may be necessary to know other subsurface information to remediate nonhalogenated semivolatile organics in water. Treatability studies may be required to determine the contaminant biodegradability for any biodegradation technologies. Treatability studies are also necessary to ensure that the contaminated ground water can be treated effectively at the design flow. A subsurface geologic characterization would be particularly useful to any isolation or stabilization technologies. Ground water models are also...
Containment for Soil, Sediment, and Sludge
Containment treatments are often performed to prevent, or significantly reduce, the migration of contaminants in soils or ground water. Containment is necessary whenever contaminated materials are to be buried or left in place at a site. In general, containment is performed when extensive subsurface contamination at a site precludes excavation and removal of wastes because of potential hazards, unrealistic cost, or lack of adequate treatment technologies. Containment treatments offer quick installation times and...
Removal of Lead from Gasoline
On 12th March 1997, the European Commission adopted a proposal from the Environment Commissioner Ritt Bjerregaard on a European Union strategy to combat acidification. The strategy will, by 2010, reduce significantly the extent of the areas in the European Union where the tolerance of sensitive ecosystems to acidity is exceeded. Main elements of the strategy include establishment of national emission ceilings for each acid rain pollutant; ratification of the UN protocol on further reductions of sulphur emissions;...
Principles of Waste Avoidance and Utilization
The minimization of wastes requiring disposal is increasingly important as available disposal options become more and more constrained, and particularly as more substances enter everyday use which are not readily decomposed in the natural environment and which can present long term hazards. This note sets out some basic principles for waste minimization in industrial processes, where `minimization` is taken to include avoidance of the generation of wastes where practical and the productive utilization of any...
Other Treatment Technologies
Reuse/Recycle: Recovery and reuse technologies for energetic materials, including both explosives and propellants, should be considered at explosives waste sites for several reasons. First, new recovery methods and potential uses for reclaimed explosive materials are rapidly developing. Second, recovery/reuse options reduce overall remediation costs by eliminating destruction costs and allowing the value of reclaimed materials to be recovered. Finally, EPA`s treatment hierarchy, which is based on environmental...
RCRA: Reducing Risk From Waste
This document provides an overview of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) solid and hazardous waste regulations. It describes the history of RCRA, the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the states, and hazardous waste definitions and management requirements, including the roles of generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. In addition, it presents information on hazardous waste minimization. It covers municipal and industrial solid waste as well,...
Hazardous Waste Identification Studies
This is a final report of the study on spent solvents under taken as a result of a consent decree between the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The study discusses the wastes associated with the use of the materials as solvents, the toxicity of the wastes, and the management practices for the wastes. The chemicals included in this study are diethylamine, aniline, ethylene oxide, allyl chloride, 1,4-dioxane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and bromoform. In addition, this...
RO Feedwater: Treat It Right
Summary Crossflow membrane filtration systems, such as reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF) or ultrafiltration (UF), are good alternatives to traditional filtration and chemical treatment. However, to get the best performance from them, careful attention must be paid to feedwater conditions. Pretreating feedwater can lengthen the life of membrane elements, improve the quality of the water produced and reduce the amount of maintenance and cleaning a system requires. The importance of feedwater conditions...
Two-pass Combined Membrane Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment
There are several options in designing two-pass reverse osmosis systems, using the predominant membranes currently on the market: PA (polyamide) or CA (cellulose triacetate) membranes. Combining cellulose triacetate and polyamide membranes in the first and second passes, respectively, is just one approach that offers some interesting advantages, but it may not necessarily be suitable for all applications of two-pass reverse osmosis. Using polyamide in both passes (PA/PA) provides a higher final product water and...
Wastewater Recovery Using Reverse Osmosis
INTRODUCTION If one were to select a single word describing the most important factor when applying membrane technology to a wastewater application, it would be chemistry. That is not to say that other factors are not important; certainly fluid dynamics and other physical science factors play a major role as well. But it is the chemistry that is so important to success. And it is the chemistry that is so often overlooked. All too often reverse osmosis, or any membrane system for that matter, is considered the...