IWA Publishing

Alternative sanitation options for households and communities


Courtesy of IWA Publishing

The resource-intensive wastewater collection and treatment systems found in many parts of the developed world are not feasible for meeting the sanitation[1] needs of the less developed regions still lacking or having poor sanitation.  Establishment and maintenance costs are high and large amounts of energy are required to operate these systems.  In fact, it can be questioned whether such systems are even desirable because of the precious resources that are wasted in the process -  considerable volumes of water are used just as a transport medium and nutrients are often taken out of the food cycle.

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