An approximate model on three-dimensional groundwater infiltration in sewer systems
Groundwater infiltration through cracked sewer pipes has caused significant economic losses. This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical expression for calculating the steady-state groundwater infiltration rate into sewer systems. As an extension of the previously developed two-dimensional model by the author, this new model can be used to simulate the infiltration through an orifice defect. The derived analytical expression has been validated with experimental results. The new model incorporates all the related resistances during the infiltration process, including the soil head loss and the orifice loss. The soil head loss is assessed with Ergun equation, which involves an inertial loss term in addition to the viscous loss. This has significantly extended the application range of the new expression. A new OS number (the ratio of orifice loss to soil loss) expression is also presented. The order analysis of the OS number expression has demonstrated that in most real cases, the head loss through the soil layer dominates the whole infiltration process.