An Australian perspective on DPR: technologies, sustainability and community acceptance
Australia has had guidelines in place for water recycling (for all uses other than potable reuse) since 2006. These guidelines were extended in May 2008 to cover potable reuse and have since been applied to two potable reuse schemes – one in Brisbane (Queensland) in 2011 and the second in Perth (Western Australia) in 2013. These guidelines cover both indirect potable reuse and direct potable reuse (DPR) and outline the steps that must be followed in the planning and validation of such schemes. This paper summarizes: (i) recent work carried out in Australia on treatment trains and technologies suitable for DPR; (ii) sustainability considerations of DPR and how it compares with other water supply options; and (iii) developments in community education and engagement in the potable reuse space.