An integrated Approach to Groundwater Protection Using Modelling and GIS, Groundwater in a Watershed Context (PDF)
A pilot study for delineating wellhead protection areas was undertaken in Cacapava, Brazil, which integrated three-dimensional capture zone modelling with available groundwater and contaminant-source databases, using a four-step process. A contaminant source inventory was developed and each source was ranked based on its potential impact. Next, the thickness of the unsaturated zone and the surficial soil characteristics were used to define regions of higher and lower groundwater vulnerability based on travel time to the watertable. Three-dimensional groundwater modelling was then used to integrate the contaminant inventory, vulnerability maps, and well field capture zones to highlight the critical areas in need of groundwater protection and prioritize management activity.