An Overview of Corrugator Paper Pulp Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater Treatment Success Stories
Class 'A' Wasterwater Treatment Facility
Printing Facility - 40% Cost Reduction
This company imports corrugated board and prints the labels using a flexographic machine. The facility had a wastewater treatment system using the traditional liquid chemistry of aluminum chloride, caustic for pH adjustment, and an anionic flocculant. The effluent was often out of compliance due copper from the color pigments in the inks. The system required continual adjustment of the 3 chemistries to obtain treatability and a cake dry enough for disposal contributing directly to operational costs from the wastewater operations operator. The dewatering press required 2 hours, on average, to clean the plates. Once a week, they had to disassemble the press and pressure wash the plates, which took 5 hours to complete.
facility needed to relocate to a new location, as they had outgrown
their existing one. In the negotiations with the city and county, it
was determined that the hook-up fee would be over $250,000. Management
determined that zero discharge and reuse of the wastewater for wash
down was the only viable solution.
Integrated Engineers Inc was retained to assist in the installation of the new treatment system and convert the system to use with Floccin™ 1106. Some of the existing tanks were used, as well as a new reaction tank, filter press, ozone re-circulation in the finished water tank, post filtration, and pressurization tank. The processed water was then sent back to the flexographic machine for wash down use. These modifications cost the facility $42,000 in equipment.
Result from Process Modifications
Since startup, the cost per gallon is 40% less than that of the previous chemistry, saving $12,000/year in chemistry alone. The wastewater operator has only the Floccin-1106 to use (versus coagulant/ flocculant/ caustic), which saves 2 hours per day of labor. The water quality is consistently clear and the ozonation keeps the bacterial count low (good printing quality with no odors). The sludge is consistently dry and cleaning the press takes only 20 minutes. In addition, they no longer have to pressure wash the plates. Extra savings comes from 1,000 gal/day less water from the city, no sewer hookup fee to the city, no sewer bills or analytical costs to prove discharge compliance.
Corrugator Sheet Plant
$70k per year savings with Zero Discharge
A facility that made corrugated sheet board was using a specialty flocculant to treat their wastewater. Unfortunately, it treated the water only one half of the time to acceptable levels for reuse as starch makeup. The facility had paid $45,000 in the first 6 months of the year in chemical costs and $40,000 in haul-off costs to haul the majority of the treated water offsite.
Engineers, Inc. developed a process to treat starch-laden wastewater
using Floccin™ J. The process is to adjust the pH up to 10.2 to 10.5
with caustic and add 10lbs/1,500 gallons of wastewater making clear
effluent and dry filter press cakes (and eliminated the use of DE as a press pre-coat). The chemical costs for the Floccin™ products were less than 50% of the previous chemical supplier and all of the water was of sufficient clarity and quality for reuse. Plant savings have been over $70,000/year and zero discharge to sewer or haul off.
Corrugator Sheet Plant 1
A facility that made corrugated sheet board was using a specialty flocculant to treat their wastewater. Unfortunately, it treated the water only one half of the time to acceptable levels for reuse as starch makeup. The facility had paid $45,000 in the first 6 months of the year in chemical costs and $40,000 in haul-off costs to haul the majority of the treated water offsite. Integrated Engineers, Inc. developed a process to treat starch-laden wastewater using Floccin J. The process is to adjust the pH up to 10.2...
Corrugated Printing Facility Zero Discharge
This company imports corrugated board and prints the labels using a flexographic machine. The facility had a wastewater treatment system using the traditional liquid chemistry of aluminum chloride, caustic for pH adjustment, and an anionic flocculant. The effluent was often out of compliance due copper from the color pigments in the inks. The system required continual adjustment of the 3 chemistries to obtain treatability and a cake dry enough for disposal contributing directly to operational costs from the...
Top ten technologies for 2007
Technology breakthroughs continue to come with what appears to an exponential rate. Some 30 years ago, recycling wastewater from a manufacturing operation and `zero` discharge were no more than a dream. A fine filter was something that was used only in laboratories by qualified technicians. If you had organic emissions, they were burned in flares, not RTOs. We no longer have to use boilers and condensers to desalinate sea water for potable use as filters can remove specific constituents from the water and keep on...
Biotreatment of Odors from the Zimpro Sludge Conditioning Process
Management of odor emissions generated during thermal sludge conditioning is a well known disadvantage of the “Zimpro” process. Traditional methods of using chemical oxidation and high temperature destruction result in the formation of secondary products, such as chlorine gas, organic halocarbons or nitrogen oxides. In this study, biotrickling filter technology was evaluated at the Villa Hills wastewater treatment plant, operated by Sanitation District No. 1 in Northern Kentucky. The objective of this pilot-scale...
Integrated Odor Control for Solids Handling Operations
Untitled Document Solids handling operations and solids holding facilities are often major sources of odor at wastewater treatment plants. Hydrogen sulfide and other odorous compounds generated during primary settling and solids holding are released during solids processing. For dewatering processes, belt presses in particular are prone to severe odor problems. Belt press rooms are notorious for having high hydrogen sulfide concentrations, which can cause corrosion of equipment and, in some...
Recovery of Precious Metal Catalysts - A New Process Using Supercritical Water Oxidation
Up to now, the recovery of precious metals used as catalysts in chemical processes has involved the use of incineration. Now, however, a British-Swedish joint venture has developed a process which uses supercritical water oxidation instead, which provides many economic and environmental advantages. Precious metals are used extensively in catalysts in a wide range of industrial chemical processes. Sometimes they are used in a homogeneous form, but more often fixed to a solid support for ease of handling. In many...
Sludge Disposal that’s Sustainable, Safe and Economically Viable
The Kemwater Recycling Process – KREPRO for treatment of sewage sludge is based on a completely new separation technology, which uses existing knowledge in an innovative way. It reduces both the organic and inorganic content of the sludge. The organic content is re-duced by about 30% and the inorganic about 70% if digested sludge is treated. All metals and salts are dissolved; the remaining undissolved inorganics are mainly silicates like sand and grit. In constast, most sludge treatment technologies used today...
Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the removal of filter-clogging Synedra
The occurrence of Synedra spp. in the source water of the CheongJu water treatment plant (South Korea) decreased filter run times of rapid sand filters to below 5 hours. During the filter-clogging episode, full-scale Synedra removal by coagulation with polyaluminium hydrogen chloride silicate (PAHCS), flocculation and sedimentation ranged from 20 to 70%. To reduce filter clogging, strategies needed to be developed to improve the coagulation of Synedra. Jar test results showed that alum was more effective for...
Bioenergy and Biofertilizer- Improvement of Biogas Production From Filter Cake
Abstract In the present paper some results of a study carried out on the anaerobic digestion of Sugar Mill Filter Cake (SMFC), use of natural zeolite to intensify the biogas production, as well as the use of the digestion mud, in biofertilizer quality are presented. The method allows obtaining increments of biogas production in the range of 20-40 %. It was shown that application of the mud containing the added doses of stimulator, far from causing any affectation, facilitates to obtain a significant improvement...
Advanced Water Treatment Technologies May Bring Purified Water to San Diego
`In four years, half of San Diego may be filling its glasses with tap water that once ran through its toilets,` reported the San Diego Union-Tribune recently. A plan to mix `repurified water` with the City`s raw drinking water reservoir could become a reality, thanks to the wonders of water treatment technology. Such a possibility elicits various reactions including disgust, marvel and fear. Although the public generally trusts and admires modern technology, politicians and even scientists fear the grave repercuss...
Reuse of Wastewater in a Textile Dyestuff Batch Production Plant
Abstract The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of current wastewater integration concepts to a batch production plant. As a case study a textile dyestuff batch production plant was chosen. First, a short introduction will be given to the current wastewater integration methods, which will be referred to later. Then, a water flow analysis of this water flow system is presented. This step is necessary to identify those processes generating the highest amount of wastewater and what actions can...
Environmental Effects of Acid Rain
Air Pollution Creates Acid Rain Scientists have discovered that air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels is the major cause of acid rain. Acidic deposition, or acid rain as it is commonly known, occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and oxidants to form various acidic compounds. This mixture forms a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. These compounds then...
Composting Food Residuals on the Farm
A county agency and a farmer in Vermont have teamed up to collect and compost food residuals and other organics. The Rutland County Solid Waste District (RCSWD), which is responsible for managing MSW for 16 cities and towns, began planning the food residuals composting program in December, 1996 with the Rutland Natural Resource Conservation District, one of 14 districts in Vermont that promotes agriculture, water quality and economic development. The conservation district canvassed area farms to determine which...
Reducing Odor and VOC Emissions
The Montgomery County Regional Composting Facility (MCRCF) in Silver Spring, Maryland is designed to process 400 wet tons/day of lime amended biosolids from the Blue Plains Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Washington, D.C. Recently, political pressures forced operations to cease at the MCRCF. Although the aerated static pile composting plant’s fate has not been completely decided, its owner, the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC), began decommissioning the facility in February, 1999. During the...
KPDES Permit Compliance: Metals in Wastewater Effluent at Fort Knox
ABSTRACT Prior to constructing a new FOTW, Fort Knox had a history of exceeding KPDES effluent limitations for ammonia and BOD. The new 6 MGD FOTW solved the problem, but metals exceedances became an issue. The exceedances could be linked to several factors: low water-quality based effluent limitations (WQBELs) on the new KPDES permit, high background concentrations of some metals, and high metals in some waste streams. Fort Knox adjusted its operating practices and negotiated with the agency to achieve...
Ion Exchange Systems.
When properly applied, ion exchange for concentrated ion recovery is by far the best available technology. Where effluent streams can be filtered and ions requiring different regenerants can be segregated, ion exchange is usually the most cost effective and least capital intensive solution. We provide 4 levels of integration to cover most applications and capital budgets. The variations in the system configuration trade your labor and attention for our automation. As you invest capital, the cost of operation,...
Poultry Farm Pioneers Low-Rate Composting
Tony Pastore, Sr. started Park Farms in Canton, Ohio decades ago to process and market chickens. In 1989, it was decided that instead of buying chickens from other producers, a new venture would be launched to raise chickens directly for Park Farms. This led to the formation of A & J Farms, a 1,900-acre operation that contains 14 separately operating chicken farms. Each sub-farm has up to ten chicken-raising barns, with half the farms having 300-foot-long barns and half having 500-foot barns. Each sub-farm...
Recycling of Municipal Wastes in Agriculture. II. Irrigation of Corn with Treated Municipal ...
Abstract Restriction of available water observed in the last years in arid or semiarid areas forces the planners to consider any source of water for irrigation. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the suitability of wastewater produced by the treatment plant of the city of Larissa, Central Greece for irrigation of corn. With a three year`s field experiment it was shown that wastewater significantly increased corn yield and may substitute considerable quantities of mineral fertilizers. Increase in corn...
Longer Life For Biofilters
Biofilters are the odor control system of choice at composting facilities. Despite similar capital costs, the biofilters are generally less costly to operate than chemical scrubbers. The key to keeping operating costs in check, however, is to get the maximum use out of the biofilter media, thus avoiding the time and money needed to do media replacements. Allen Boyette, senior engineer and manager of the Cary, North Carolina office of E&A Environmental Consultants, Inc., tackled the topic, “Building Longevity...
Environmental Situation in Africa
Abstract Africa The economic and social needs of Africa depends more on its environmental resources but these natural resources are seriously declining and that is really effecting the entire region. Sustainable development in this rapidly changing region has become an imperative, and must take place in the complex context of a diverse and changing ecosystem, political transition and evolution toward market economies. The region is heading towards integrating environmental components into sectors like...
DOC Removal by MIEX® Process - Scaling-Up & Other Development Issues
Natural organic matter (NOM) is one of the main parameters which affects water quality and performance of water treatment processes. Current processes including coagulation, oxidation, filtration and adsorption are at times inadequate or uneconomic. Over the last two years, a consortium consisting of ICI Watercare and the Australian Water Quality Centre has developed a new continuous process to remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from a variety of source waters. Employing a high capacity magnetic ion exchange...
Ex Situ Physical/chemical Treatment for Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
The main advantage of ex situ treatment is that it generally requires shorter time periods, and there is more certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the ability to monitor and continuously mix the ground water. Ex situ treatment, however, requires pumping of ground water, leading to increased costs and engineering for equipment, possible permitting, and material handling. Physical/chemical treatment uses the physical properties of the contaminants or the contaminated medium to destroy (i.e,...
Common Treatment Technologies for Nonhalogenated SVOCs in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
It may be necessary to know other subsurface information to remediate nonhalogenated semivolatile organics in water. Treatability studies may be required to determine the contaminant biodegradability for any biodegradation technologies. Treatability studies are also necessary to ensure that the contaminated ground water can be treated effectively at the design flow. A subsurface geologic characterization would be particularly useful to any isolation or stabilization technologies. Ground water models are also...
Other Treatment Technologies
Reuse/Recycle: Recovery and reuse technologies for energetic materials, including both explosives and propellants, should be considered at explosives waste sites for several reasons. First, new recovery methods and potential uses for reclaimed explosive materials are rapidly developing. Second, recovery/reuse options reduce overall remediation costs by eliminating destruction costs and allowing the value of reclaimed materials to be recovered. Finally, EPA`s treatment hierarchy, which is based on environmental...
Least-Cost Approaches to Reducing Acid Emissions
` The costs of meeting sulfur emission targets can be high. It is essential, therefore, that countries adopt policies which (a) minimize the net economic and social costs of reducing emissions to the agreed target levels, and (b) maximize the overlap between measures designed to reduce acidifying emissions and those addressing other forms of air pollution. This note discusses alternative approaches to reducing acid emissions in a cost-effective manner, identifies possible mechanisms for international assistance,...
Common Treatment Technologies for Inorganics in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
It may be necessary to know other subsurface information to remediate inorganics in ground water, surface water, and leachate. Treatability studies are usually necessary to ensure that the contaminated ground water can be treated effectively at the design flow. A subsurface geologic characterization would be particularly important to characterize the effects of adsorption and other processes of attenuation. Ground water models are also often needed to predict flow characteristics, changes in contaminant mixes and...
Water Quality Models
` In order to determine the impacts of a particular discharge on ambient water quality, it is usually necessary to model the diffusion and dispersion of the discharge in the relevant water body. The approach applies both to new discharges and to upgrading of existing sources. This note provides guidance on models that may be applicable in the context of typical Bank projects.` Introduction Mathematical models can be used to predict changes in ambient water quality due to changes in discharges of wastewater. In...
Spiral-Wound Elements for Potable Water Treatment
Introduction Any new technology must overcome perceptions of the marketplace, which are not accurate. As a technology moves into new areas of application, new misconceptions also arise. Crossflow membrane technology is no exception. The first man-made, pressure-driven `crossflow` membranes were made in flat sheet form. This membrane had to be configured in a device, and was first made in tile obvious `plate-and-frame` design. The spiral-wound design resulted as a response to the high cost, large size, and...
Sydney´s Sustainable House
Introduction Sustainability or `sustainable development` has become a term which is frequently applied to land use and social planning and resource issues. Sustainability is a concept which draws attention to development practices which can degrade natural ecosystems and deplete natural resources. If development is defined broadly to include any cultural activity, then sustainable development may be defined as any practice that meets the needs of the present population without compromising the ability of future...
Common Treatment Technologies for Explosives in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
Explosives-contaminated process waste waters can be subdivided into two categories: red water, which comes strictly from the manufacture of TNT, and pink water, which includes any washwater associated with load, assemble, and pack (LAP) operations or with the demilitarization of munitions involving contact with finished explosive. Despite their names, red and pink water cannot be identified by color. Both are clear when they emerge from their respective processes and subsequently turn pink, light red, dark red,...
Phosphate Pre-Treatment of Steel: Always Powder Coating
Always Powder Coating have replaced the conventional iron phosphate pre-treatment system with an organic process that operates at room temperature. The savings from reduced energy, labour and waste disposal costs amount to $60,000 per annum. Background Always Powder Coating (APC) operates a powder coating facility in Melbourne`s eastern suburbs and specialises in powder coating of metal chair frames, bike frames and other similar metal components. An important part of powder coating is the cleaning and pre-treatm...
Pharmaceutical: a Practical Approach to Controlling Microbial Growth in USP
The control of microbial growth in systems for producing United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Purified Water is of critical importance to pharmaceutical manufacturers. It is also of critical importance to the United States Pharmacopeial Convention Inc. (USP) organization, as evidenced by the sheer number of pages dedicated to the control of micro-organisms in the proposed USP 23 General Information chapter 1231 `Water For Pharmaceutical Purposes` (1). If a water purification system is designed, operated, and maintaine...
Pressures on the environment may occur through chemical, physical and biological agents. The subject of this study is physical agents, where physical fields are examined. Physical fields are part of the natural environment. Depending upon their properties and the surrounding conditions, physical fields are transmitted through the spaces in which we live, potentially affecting human health and nature. Human activity can add to, modify, and enhance and reduce the intensity of these fields. Furthermore, changes in...
Application of Membrane Technology for the Recovery and Reuse of Water
Abstract As water and sewer costs are expected to increase over the next decade, membrane technology will continue to be a viable and economical option in the recovery and reuse of water. This paper describes the mechanism of membrane effected separation (specifically reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and microfiltration), membranes commercially available, membrane element configurations, and how complete membrane systems are designed. The paper also discusses case histories of a variety of proven applications,...
Two Case Histories of Industrial Water Reuse Via Membrane Technology
Abstract This paper describes two successful applications of ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane technology used to reclaim water, reduce waste water discharge costs. The first case history covers oily waste water treatment at a major aluminum beverage can manufacturing plant. The second case describes treatment of waste water from a multi-plating bath section of a major wheelchair manufacturing facility. The mechanisms of separation effected by both UF and RO are described at the molecular...
Crossflow Membrane Filtration High-Purity Water Systems
INTRODUCTION As the electronics industry continues to provide us with such products as high resolution television, notebook size portable computers and cars with automatic navigation systems, it becomes necessary to produce semiconductors with finer device geometries to allow for efficient placement of more circuits per a given area. This requires increased control of a semiconductor`s material characteristics by eliminating impurities in the circuit material or on its surface. Likewise, amazing drugs such as...
Membrane Selection and Optimal Ammonium Nitrate Chemistry for Reverse Osmosis Treatment of ...
A process for manufacturing explosives produces an ammonium nitrate-laden wastewater, which can be successfully treated with reverse osmosis (RD). Key to RD use is balancing the competing waste solution chemistry requirements of the two target solutes, to enhance the performance of the particular RD membrane chosen. While the EPA requires only the reduction of the N03 and NH4+ discharge levels one manufacturer has chosen the approach of reusing both permeate and concentrate streams to `close the loop.` A lab-scale...