The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature variations on the anaerobic treatment of urban wastewater in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). To this aim, sludge production, energy recovery potential, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and membrane permeability were evaluated in a submerged anaerobic MBR fitted with industrial-scale membrane units. The plant was operated for 172 days, between summer and winter seasons. Sludge production increased and energy recovery potential decreased when temperature decreased. COD removal and membrane permeability remained nearby stable throughout the whole experimental period.