The headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100 μm) fiber is a cost-effective technique for the determination of different pesticide residues in environmental and biological samples followed by a gas chromatography-electron-capture detector (GC-ECD). In the present study more than 147 water samples collected in and around Lucknow city were analyzed. The method detection limits and recovery percentages were found in the ranges of 0.05–0.20 μg/L and 87.1–95.3% respectively. The average concentration of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water samples within the city were ranged between 0.258–0.829 μg/L and 0.143–0.294 μg/L respectively. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in highway water samples ranged between 0.261–2.80 μg/L and 0.129–0.53 μg/L. Pyrethroid pesticides were not found in any of the water samples tested. The levels of pesticide residues were compared with their MRL values recommended by the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA), Government of India (1954).
Keywords: GC-ECD, headspace SPME, Lucknow, pesticides, water