Analysis of Phenolic Estrogen Mimics in River Water by Negative Ion Electrospray LC/MS/MS
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a primary raw material used for the production of polyacrylates, epoxy resin, phenolic resin, and
polycarbonate plastic. 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is a degradation product of alkylphenol ethoxylate detergents used in
household and industrial cleaning products. Alkylphenol ethoxylate is also widely used as an additive in plastics that
are used for food packaging and used as “carriers” in the application of pesticides to increase the absorption of these
substances in the target organism.
BPA and 4-NP can leach from food containers and plastic tableware and can be ingested by humans through chronic
exposure during eating and drinking. The chemicals have been found in drinking water supplies and wastewater.
Both BPA and 4-NP mimic the effect of natural estrogen hormones. This phenomenon raises the level of concern about
the adverse health effects of these compounds on both humans and wildlife.