Climate change is one of the greatest challenges in the 21st century and the agriculture sector is very vulnerable to this phenomenon. Since wheat is the most important cereal crop in Iran, we aim to analyze the potential impact of climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) on rainfed wheat productivity in Hamedan Province, Iran. For this purpose, generalized additive models have been used to model yields of rainfed wheat based on climatic variables during 2004–2012. Then, based on sensitivity of rainfed wheat to temperature and precipitation in this period, we predict the potential effects of climate change on rainfed wheat yield under the IPCC SRES A1FI and B1 climate change scenarios. Results suggest that yields of rainfed wheat would decrease in all Hamedan's counties primarily because of decreasing October to June precipitation and higher temperature. As a result, it is predicted that the yield of rainfed wheat in Hamedan under the A1F1 and B1 scenarios will fall by 41.3% and 20.6%, respectively, in the 2080s. In other words, according to the A1F1 scenario, in the 2080s, Hamedan Province's rainfed wheat production will decline from 1090 kg/ha to 639 kg/ha and under the B1 scenario to 865 kg/ha.
The new PTR-TOF 4000 trace VOC analyzer: no compromises.
Discover the world’s smallest, commercial high-resolution PTR-TOFMS You might know that our PTR-TOF 1000 is the smallest and lightest commercial PTR-TOF trace VOC analyzer available.It’s also a huge success for us with over 30 instruments sold since 2014.You might wonder if we can do even better than this? For the first time we combine high-sensitivity with a high mass resolving power in a small and lightweight PTR-TOFMS. ThePTR-TOF 4000 features our new hexapole ION-GUIDEtechnology and a novel...
Real Time TOC Analysis in Steam and Condensate
Executive Summary Steam in petro/chemical plants could be contaminated with hydrocarbons (TOC = Total Organic Carbons) from various sources. In any case this is a sign for defects in the process, whether it they occur in the heat exchanger, the blow down vessel, the condensate recovery or other parts of the system. Conventional solutions to monitor such contaminations use TOC- analyzers that have been developed for water (drinking water, wastewater, boiler feed water,...). This paper presents a solution that...
LGD F200 - Designed for easy zeroing and span adjustments
Regular zeroing and span adjustments to gas analyzers in the field are suggested and required for a variety of reasons. Compliance to environmental standards, e.g. those outlined in the US EPA (40 CFR) or EN 14181 is an important factor. Special application conditions, e.g. a varying gas matrix or compensating for pressure effects can be additional reasons, where a zeroing and span adjustment can bring improvements in gas measurement performance, and help eliminate systematic errors.The LGD F200 –...
Two Detector Solution to Analyzing Sulfur
Sulfur compounds are reactive, corrosive to pipes, and destructive to catalysts in petroleum refineries. Sulfur emission are strictly regulated globally. When released into the atmosphere sulfur dioxide converts to sulfuric acid resulting in adverse effects on human health and the environment. Sulfur detection is found useful in many other industries; therefore, detection of sulfur compounds in matrices serves a vital role in many application areas. Sulfur analysis is typically done by gas chromatography (GC)....
Nitrogen Demand Increases for Semiconductor: How Safe Are You?
As users demand ever-smaller smartphones and better televisions, semiconductor manufacturing plants are tasked with developing new products faster and using new materials. Key to the continued success of the semiconductor industry are inert gases, which includenitrogen and argon. When used safely, both nitrogen and argonplaya number of important roles within the semiconductor plant. Yet,these gasesposes a health hazard for employees if a leak occurs. How and Why Nitrogen isused in Semiconductor Manufacturing...