Application of a GIS-based DRASTIC model and groundwater quality index method for evaluation of groundwater vulnerability: a case study, Sefid-Dasht
Pollution control and removal of pollutants from groundwater are a challenging and expensive task. The aims of this paper are to determine the aquifer vulnerability of Sefid-Dasht, in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran, using the DRASTIC model. In addition, the groundwater quality index (GQI) technique was applied to assess the groundwater quality and study the spatial variability of major ion concentrations using a geographic information system (GIS). The vulnerability index ranged from 65 to 132, classified into two classes: low and moderate vulnerability. In the southern part of the aquifer, the vulnerability was moderate. Furthermore, the results indicate that the magnitude of the GQI index varies from 92% to 95%. This means the water has a suitable quality. However, from the north to the south and southwest of the aquifer, the water quality has been deteriorating, and the highest concentration of major ions was found in the southwest of the Sefid-Dasht aquifer. A comparison of the vulnerability maps with the GQI index map indicated a poor relation between them. In the DRASTIC method, movement of groundwater is not considered and may be the reason for such inconsistency. However, the movement of groundwater can transport contaminants.