John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Application of pocis for exposure assessment of munitions constituents during constant and fluctuating exposure

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Potential use of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) for exposure assessment of munitions constituents (MC), including 2,4,6‐trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro‐1,3,5‐trinitro‐1,3,5‐triazine (RDX), and their breakdown products (aminodinitrotoluenes [ADNTs], diaminonitrotoluenes [DANTs], and hexahydro‐1,3,5‐trinitroso‐1,3,5‐triazine [TNX]), was examined. Loss of MC from the sorbent phase following uptake was observed for the “pesticide” POCIS configuration, but not for the “pharmaceutical” configuration. Therefore, the latter was selected for further investigation. Under constant exposure conditions, TNT, ADNTs, DANT, RDX, and atrazine (a common environmental contaminant) accumulated at a linear rate for at least 14 days, with sampling rates between 34‐215 ml/d. When POCIS were exposed to fluctuating concentrations, analyte accumulation values were similar to values found during constant exposure indicating the sampler was indeed integrative. In contrast, caffeine (a common polar contaminant) and TNX did not accumulate at a linear rate, and had greater than a 50% reduction in accumulation on the POCIS during fluctuating exposures, demonstrating that POCIS does not sample those chemicals in an integrative manner. Moreover, in a flow through microcosm containing the explosive formulation Composition B, TNT and RDX were readily measured using POCIS, despite relatively high turnover rates and thus reduced water concentrations. Mean water concentrations estimated from POCIS were ± 37% of mean water concentrations measure by traditional grab sample collection. Thus, POCIS were found to have high utility for quantifying exposure to most MC evaluated (TNT, ADNTs, and RDX) and atrazine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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