Appropriation, tacit knowledge and hybrid social regimes in biotechnology in Europe
The article aims to trace the way in which the scientific community works through the study of a specific discipline. The information concerns both a country study and a comparison between different European countries. The analysis deals with different aspects the role of collaborations through which tacit knowledge circulates among scientists: the way in which scientific teams are involved in market activities and inter-institutional relations; the possibility of combining rules of different social regimes and the growth of new functions and goals within the scientific community; the relation between laboratories' capacity of developing diversified strategies and the central norms of the scientific community. Differentiation and competition characterise public research teams; a coexistence between different rules emerge, but teams and scientific institutions have not still developed a good balance between conflicting goals.
Keywords: research collectives, hybrid social regimes, appropriation, tacit knowledge, public research systems, biotechnology