This paper outlines ADB's interventions to improve water supply and sanitation services in Armenia. It also highlights the rationale behind the structure of a new tariff regime, which is aimed at fostering the long-term financial sustainability of the Armenian Water and Sewerage Company (AWSC), and summarizes main lessons learned.
Easy to Use Ozone Water Treatment Solution at Salmar Smolt Hatchery - Case study
SalMar Settefisk in Follafoss, part of SalMar ASA, is one of the largest salmon producers in the world with its production of 10 million smolts (fry) a year. When expanding its facility with a new RAS (recirculating aquaculture) system Primozone® was chosen to supply and design the complete ozone water treatment solution for the hatchery. Preferred supplier The Primozone solution was specifically requested by both SalMar Settefisk and Nofitech, the designer of the RAS system, as they thought this was the...
How to identify issues in water quality
Water quality can mean different things to different people and therefore depends on what standard of quality one is looking for, for example, water may be fine for fish to live in but lack the quality required for human consumption. To measure the quality of water accurately, tests are carried out to identify several key indicators. These characteristics are then compared to numeric standards and guidelines in order to decide if the water is suitable for a particular purpose. The assessment of the quality of...
How to Choose the Right Biological Water Filtration System
There are many different biological treatments of water available. They’re all similar in a number of ways, but share key differences in the specific ways the water is filtered. This article is an informative breakdown of all the different biological water treatment systems that are available and how they work. Slow Sand Filtration This system supports the growth and maintenance of microorganisms that eventually become its primary filtering mechanism. Its layers work to get rid of any potential contaminants...
Effects of sulfate and nitrate on the taste of water: a study with a trained panel
The role of sulfate and nitrate in the taste of drinking water is not entirely clear. Taste threshold concentrations (TTCs) were estimated for these two species by the 3-AFC method by a trained panel, as sodium and calcium salts. In both cases TTCs for nitrate were about 100 mg NO3/L, twice the usual reference value of international recommendations. TTCs for sulfate were about 160 mg SO4/L (sodium salt) and 80 mg SO4/L (calcium); 75% detection values were also estimated for both anions. An experiment with a...
Resilience-based water main rehabilitation planning in a multi-hazard context
Due to aging beyond the intended design life, many water mains in the USA are currently deteriorated resulting in an increasing number of failures which challenge water utilities with diminished supply reliabilities, loss of treated water, and numerous other societal issues. Water pipeline systems serving regions that are naturally vulnerable to external hazards, such as earthquakes, pose additional challenges. Numerous vulnerabilities such as these must be congruently analyzed for optimal capital improvement...