Assessing Spatial Variability of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide in Montreal, Canada, with a Land-Use Regression Model
Courtesy of Air & Waste Management Association (A&WMA)
The purpose of this study was to derive a land-use regression model to estimate on a geographical basis ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. These estimates of concentrations of NO2 will be subsequently used to assess exposure in epidemiologic studies on the health effects of traffic-related air pollution.
Chemical Aspects of NOX Scrubbing
With the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, many chemical and metal industries and utility producers will now be required to further limit the amount of NOX (Nitrogen Oxides) produced. NOX is a precursor to ozone in the atmosphere, and is believed to be a major contributor to acidic deposition (acid rain). Formation of ozone: NO2 + Hv NO + O (Photochemical Reaction) O + O2 + M O3 + M, where M - Energy accepting third body. NOX is produced in a variety of different processes, including combustio...
Achieving Pathogen Stabilization Using Vermicomposting
Within the last decade, implementation of state and federal regulations and other local codes have changed biosolids processing in Florida. Previously, biosolids stabilization varied greatly among the state’s 3,500 to 4,000 wastewater treatment facilities. Public and privately owned wastewater treatment facilities were required to stabilize their biosolids to a minimum Class C standard for land application, with most facilities using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Requirements for septage solids stabilization,...
Possibilities for Future EC Environmental Policy on Plant Protection Products
Abstract This report presents the results of a study to examine and evaluate the economic, environmental and social benefits of plant protection products (PPPs) in agriculture with the main emphasis on the economic aspects. The approach followed was to carry out four case studies - each covering a single crop in a specific region of major production-comparing standard, integrated and organic production systems. The four crop/region case studies selected were: apples (Trentino-Adige, Italy), ware potatoes (Flevolan...
Thermal Power - Guidelines for New Plants Industry - Pollution Prevention Guidelines
Introduction Pollution Prevention Guidelines to provide technical advice and guidance to staff and consultants involved in pollution-related projects. The guidelines represent state-of-the-art thinking on how to reduce pollution emissions from the production process. In many cases, the guidelines provide numerical targets for reducing pollution, as well as maximum emissions levels that are normally achievable through a combination of cleaner production and end-of-pipe treatment. The guidelines are designed to...
Sydney´s Sustainable House
Introduction Sustainability or `sustainable development` has become a term which is frequently applied to land use and social planning and resource issues. Sustainability is a concept which draws attention to development practices which can degrade natural ecosystems and deplete natural resources. If development is defined broadly to include any cultural activity, then sustainable development may be defined as any practice that meets the needs of the present population without compromising the ability of future...
Pesticides in the European Union
There has been a sharply falling trend in the total volume of sales of agricultural pesticides in the EU between 1991 and 1995. But this was reversed in 1996. From 1991-1995, EU sales of pesticides, measured by weight of active ingredients (ai), fell by 13%. They then rose by 6% between 1995 and 1996 to stand at 299,826 tonnes ai. But this still put them nearly 8% below the 1991 figure. The use of lower-dose pesticides has been a key contributor to the fall in weight of active ingredients sold in recent years....
Urban Air Quality Management
` Poor air quality due to pollution is a serious environmental problem in most urban areas. The greatest burden of pollution is on human health. Urban air quality management requires an integrated approach that (i) identifies the most serious problems and measures that offer cost-effective and feasible solutions across a range of economic sectors and pollution sources including industries, utilities, traffic and households; and (ii) builds a consensus among key stakeholders concerning environmental objectives,...
Comparative Risk Assessment
` Comparative risk assessment provides a systematic way to compare environmental problems that pose different types and degrees of health risk. It combines information on the inherent hazards of pollutants, exposure levels and population characteristics to predict the resulting health effects. Using data from available sources, rapid, inexpensive comparative risk assessments can identify the most significant health problems. Together with consideration of costs, technical feasibility and other factors, the...
Removal of Lead from Gasoline
On 12th March 1997, the European Commission adopted a proposal from the Environment Commissioner Ritt Bjerregaard on a European Union strategy to combat acidification. The strategy will, by 2010, reduce significantly the extent of the areas in the European Union where the tolerance of sensitive ecosystems to acidity is exceeded. Main elements of the strategy include establishment of national emission ceilings for each acid rain pollutant; ratification of the UN protocol on further reductions of sulphur emissions;...
Low-Level Waste Projection Program Guide
The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is taking a structured approach for the determination of its low-level waste (LLW) disposal needs through the development of this Low-Level Waste Projection Program Guide (referred to as the Guide). The Department has developed this Guide as part of a process to improve the management of DOE LLW. This Guide has been prepared by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) and establishes a consistent methodology for forecasting the volume and characteristics...
Sources of PCDDs/PCDFs In Cement Kiln Emissions
Abstract This paper presents data on the source of PCDDs/PCDFs in cement plant stack emissions, demonstrating that these emissions are not necessarily all created by the process. The data potentially demonstrates that some of the PCDDs/PCDFs in the emissions are pre-existing dioxins and furans that are vaporized out of the kiln raw feed. This calls into question the assumption that PCDD/PCDF emissions can be decreased below a certain point. The EPA has acknowledged resuspended PCDD/PCDF emissions, such as from...