Keywords: Monte Carlo dose assessment, X-ray diagnostics, Monte Carlo simulation, low radiation, patient exposure, radiation exposure, X-rays, absorbed doses, voxel phantoms
Assessment of patient doses in X-ray diagnostics
This paper presents a computer code for the assessment of absorbed effective doses and dose equivalents in X-ray diagnostics. The absorbed doses in a patient's tissues in various X-ray examinations were estimated using the Monte Carlo method. The X-ray spectra generated by the empirical TASMIP model were verified. Further simulations were based on an anthropomorphic phantom of a standard adult. The absorbed doses in voxels in various diagnostic X-ray examinations were calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The result of the calculations was an array of X-ray flux through the surface of every voxel, and a summation of doses on voxels over organ and tissue volumes. Average absorbed doses on organs and tissues of the phantom were determined by further division by the number of voxels inside the respective organ or tissue. Doses in 22 standard organs of the phantom for various standard X-ray examinations were computed. The doses obtained from Monte Carlo simulations were compared with the measured absorbed doses. A comparison was made with the doses calculated by several similar programs for calculating patients' organ doses and the effective dose in medical X-ray examinations.