Keywords: dry deposition flux, trace elements, India, airborne PM10, air pollution, air quality, India, iron, aluminium, cadmium, zinc, chromium, lead
Atmospheric concentration and fluxes of trace elements in Visakhapatnam City of India
Airborne PM10 samples were collected during winter and summer at three different sites in a coastal city, Visakhapatnam, India. Average individual trace element concentrations fluctuated between 19 ng m−3 (Cd) and 4,802 ng m−3 (Zn). Average trace element concentrations for winter were observed higher than those of summer. Dry deposition flux was estimated using metal concentration in ambient air and their settling velocity published in literature. Mean dry deposition flux ranged between 4.0 µg m−2 d−1 to 1,343 µg m−2 d−1. Yearly loading of trace elements to Visakhapatnam ranged from 0.40 Mg yr−1 to 130 Mg yr−1. The result of enrichment factors indicated that crustal elements such as Fe, Al, Mn and Cr were originated from the soil dust while Cd, Zn and Pb had significant anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis results suggest that Al, Mn and Fe were predominantly of crustal origin, whereas Cd, Cr, Zn and Pb had important non–crustal sources.