Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in Sado estuary (Portugal) using biomonitors
Courtesy of Inderscience Publishers
Epiphytic lichen transplants and aerosol samplers were put together in the Setubal area, Portugal. They were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The lichen dataset pointed out nine factors. No relevant differentiation was found towards different positioning of the lichens. T-transplants were delayed towards F-transplants, and for both after 3 and 6 months the accumulation was as much as at 9th month. Direct rainfall protection favoured accumulation for a few elements only. The elemental accumulation in lichens depended more on temperature and humidity conditions. Aerosol data towards lichen database showed an excellent correlation.
Keywords: lichens, aerosols, epiphytic lichen transplants, PM25, PM10, nuclear techniques, source apportionment, air pollution, pollutants dispersion, Portugal, biomonitors, temperature, humidity, metal concentrations
A high-performance aerosol concentrator for biological agent detection
IntroductionParticle sampling from ambient air is a well-developed technology described in many texts (e.g., Vincent 1989; Willeke and Baron 1993; Hinds 1999). However, there are many cases in which the concentration of airborne particles is so low that it becomes necessary to sample for extended periods of time to collect enough mass for chemical or biological characterization of the collected sample. One of these cases is the identification of biological aerosols by mass spectrometry (Barshick et al. 1999: Hart...
Atmospheric particulate matter in the city of Sao Carlos/SP, Brazil
This paper presents experimental data and source apportionment simulations on particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in the atmosphere of Sao Carlos/SP, Brazil. Both a Hi-vol sampler equipped with glass fibre filters and a Dichotomous sampler with nucleopore filters were used. The collected material was analysed for total carbon, using a thermometric method, and for traces of several chemical species, using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Source apportionment estimations were made with a chemical mass balance...
MODELS-3/CMAQ evaluation during high particulate episodes over Eastern North America in summer 1995 ...
This study presents the results of an evaluation of the US EPA air quality modelling system MODELS 3/CMAQ/MM5 during episodes of high particulate matter over Eastern North America. Modelling results for PM2.5, PM10, secondary aerosols and precursor gases were compared with observed data derived from a number of monitoring networks operated in the USA and Canada during the episodes.Keywords: particulate episodes, MM5 simulation, air quality, chemical model, CMAQ
Estimates of Marginal External Costs of Air Pollution in Europe
DG Environment has had prepared the Benefits Table (BeTa) database of externalities for air pollution in Europe. BeTa gives the marginal external costs of air pollution (SO2, NOx, VOCs and PM10) in terms of euros per ton of pollutant for each EU Member State. Furthermore, these external costs are divided between rural and urban areas. Finally, preliminary estimates of the externalities from shipping are given for the Eastern Atlantic, Baltic Sea, English Channel, Northern Mediterranean, and North Sea. The...
Regional Health Effects of Demand-Side Energy Management Using Exposure Efficiency
Life cycle impact assessment is usually plagued by the assumptions of site independence and uniform mixing of pollutants in a compartment (e.g., atmosphere), which are not valid for all air pollutants. In this paper we propose using the concept of exposure efficiency to simplify the damage pathway analysis without compromising the consideration of site-dependent characteristics. Our case study of increasing insulation in new homes in the US from the MEC1993 to IECC2000 level yields 6,442 TJ (6,111 GBTU) of energy...
Wet Electrostatic Precipitation Demonstrating Promise for Fine Particulate Control
Editor’s Note: Part l of this two-part feature on wet electrostatic precipitation (wet ESPs) outlines the need for multi-pollutant air pollution control technologies, the basics of wet and dry electrostatic precipitation, the ability of wet and dry ESPs to treat fine particulate, and the use of wet ESP technology at Northern States Power Company’s Sherco Station. Part II will explore the key design considerations associated with wet ESP technology, compare plate and tube-type configurations, and examine the use...
Chemical Body Burdens: A Look at Biomonitoring (PDF)
Researchers, public health officials, regulators, and others have long been in search of a reliable diagnostic tool to identify and measure the presence of chemical substances, and their breakdown products, in human bodily fluids. The utility of such a tool is almost limitless, and has staggering implications for all participants in the chemical producer and user community.That tool, biomonitoring, is now available. Through biomonitoring, measurements of chemicals in human blood, urine, and serum can be taken...
National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900-1998
Executive Summary What information is presented in this report? This report presents the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) latest estimates of national emissions for criteria air pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX ), volatile organic compounds (VOC), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), particulate matter (PM) less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 ), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), and lead (Pb). In addition, estimates of...
Waste Foundry Quartz Sand Utilization
Abstract Foundry production needs high quality of quartz sand. After production, most of the sand is recycled and used again, but there is still a certain quantity which cannot be used. This paper presents the results of the researches made with a view to utilization of waste sand from foundry production. It is possible to use such material in building materials production and building construction. Introduction The development of foundry production in the territory of Yugoslavia dates from the beginnings of...
Cogeneration Helps Reduce Malting Costs: Adelaide Malting Pty Ltd
Adelaide Malting is using natural-gas cogeneration as an energy-efficient alternative to electricity-powered malt drying technology. As well as replacing electricity as the power source, cogeneration has boosted plant capacity by 20 percent. Background Adelaide Malting, part of the Coopers Brewery Group of Companies, produces barley malt for the local, interstate and overseas beer-brewing industry. The company operates from modern facilities at Cavan, about 10 kms north of Adelaide, South Australia. It has a...
Calculating Accidental Release Flow Rates From Pressurized Gas Systems
When determining the consequences of accidental release flow rates from pressurized gas systems, it is important to select the appropriate type of air pollution dispersion model. For released gases which are lighter than or equal to the ambient air density, Gaussian dispersion models as described in Beychok`s text1 should be used. For released gases which are heavier than air, a dense gas model such as SLAB2 or DEGADIS3 should be used. It is also important to determine realistic flow rates for accidental release...
The Economic Toll of Pollution’s Effects on Health
Measuring and valuing the health impacts of pollution are very complex and available methods of economic analysis are often rudimentary. In recent years, considerable progress has been made, especially in respect to air pollution. This note summarizes the latest findings and outlines some basic approaches that can be applied in the economic analysis of Bank projects and sector studies. However, a degree of uncertainty still remains, and great care must be taken in their application. Background Investments in...
Modeling may be necessary to estimate the changes in ambient air quality, both locally and at a distance, caused by a particular set of emissions. Modeling can be appropriate for new plants and for modifications to existing plants. This note provides guidance on some models that may be useful in the context of typical World Bank Group projects. Introduction Air quality is an issue of increasing concern in many countries, and projects which either introduce new sources of emissions or are designed to reduce...
Sources of PCDDs/PCDFs In Cement Kiln Emissions
Abstract This paper presents data on the source of PCDDs/PCDFs in cement plant stack emissions, demonstrating that these emissions are not necessarily all created by the process. The data potentially demonstrates that some of the PCDDs/PCDFs in the emissions are pre-existing dioxins and furans that are vaporized out of the kiln raw feed. This calls into question the assumption that PCDD/PCDF emissions can be decreased below a certain point. The EPA has acknowledged resuspended PCDD/PCDF emissions, such as from...
Introduction The energy level of some types of radiation is high enough so that when they interact with matter they cause the formation of electrically charged particles or ion-pairs and break molecular bonds. These so-called ionising radiations are by their nature potentially harmful to life; at high doses they can be lethal and at lower doses can cause genetic damage. Ionising radiation occurs naturally, and life on Earth has always been exposed to it. Human activities can, however, enhance exposure, and new...