Keywords: atomic clusters, nanoparticles, nanowires, self-assembly, directed assembly, interconnects, hydrogen sensors, gas sensing, nanotechnology, nanoelectronics, percolation, kinetic energy, palladium clusters, tin clusters, copper clusters
Atomic cluster device research in New Zealand
We review research in New Zealand on nano-electronic devices fabricated using atomic clusters as building blocks. Techniques described include those based on percolation, and on self (or directed) assembly in templates. The templates used are V-grooves etched into silicon wafers and lithographically defined patterns in PMMA on silicon. Both methods exploit the tendency, which is demonstrated by both experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, for clusters to bounce when incident with sufficient kinetic energy on a surface. We then review the application of cluster techniques to examples including the filling of high aspect ratio trenches with copper clusters for interconnect applications, fabrication of hydrogen sensors based on palladium clusters, and development of gas sensors (specifically for hydrogen and ammonia) using a process based on the oxidation of tin clusters.