This study investigated the rainfall patterns, spatial variability, surface runoff generation and dam requirements in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. The region was divided into four areas Asir, Jazan, Al-Baha and the Red Sea Coast. Surface runoff was estimated for eight scenarios considering the runoff coefficients of 0.05–0.70, resulting in 203–2,835 million cubic meters (MCM) of runoff per year in this region. The runoff in the Asir, Jazan, Al-Baha and the Red Sea Coast were estimated to be in the ranges of 88–1,230, 53–738, 32–443 and 30–425 MCM per year, respectively. The capacities of the existing dams in Asir, Jazan and Al-Baha are approximately 373, 194 and 31 MCM, respectively, while the coast does not have any dam. A significant fraction of runoff is likely to be lost in each scenario of assessment. Water resources may be augmented through construction of new dams and/or wells in appropriate locations. However, better understanding is advisable on locations, water availability, surface evaporation in wadies and reservoirs, accumulation of solids in dam/reservoirs, hydraulic conductivity, economic burdens and national policy.
- IWA Publishing
- Augmentation of surface water sources from spatially distributed ...
Water mixing in waste lagoons
Man-made lagoons have been used worldwide for the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater, it seems, forever. All waste lagoons were first designed and thoughtfully planned considering their locations, soil makeup, and waste reduction processes prior to being implemented. The biological process of organic waste reduction is always a consideration of waste lagoon designs. There are three biological concepts considered for waste lagoons - Anaerobic lagoons, commonly at least 10 feet deep, have no dissolved...
Nitrate Analysis of Water Samples Using a Benchtop UV-Vis Spectrophotometer
Nitrogen is naturally found in groundwater and surface water in the form of nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level of nitrate-nitrogen in potable water of 10ppm. This application presents results of UV-Vis analysis of nitrate concentrations in drinking water, ground water, and industrial wastewater, showing that the manual colorimetric method is suitable for analysis of nitrate contamination in water systems. The data included is part of a data set being used to...
Impact of surface maintenance on BioSand filter performance and flow
The BioSand filter (BSF) is a household scaled, intermittently operated, slow sand filter. The BSF requires maintenance to remove trapped sediments. This study evaluated the effects of maintenance on the filter's flow rate and performance. Four concrete BSFs received three styles of maintenance: surface agitation (SA), stirring method (SM), and sand removal (SR). Effluent water was collected from the filter between 0–2 L effluent (0–2 L effluent) and between 15–20 L effluent (15 L+ effluent). After maintenance,...
Fish Farms - Inspections below the surface
Fish farms are tackling the increased demand for aquatic food, while underwater drones are tackling regular and ongoing inspections to ensure fish health and the integrity of the enclosures. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, by the year 2050, there will be nearly 2 billion more humans populating the earth. Meaning that we will need to produce 60% more food than we do today; Aquaculture systems could be the answer to solving that problem. Why Aquaculture? If properly...
Online waste water monitoring system on golfcourse - Case Study
Validation of BACTcontrol as an online waste water Monitoring System and Microbiological Early Warning System. The presence of dangerous micro organisms in water used in food processing or surface water can be a real threat for human health. The constant monitoring and control of the presence of such dangerous pathogens is therefore of big importance. In a collaboration project between a local Waterboard and microLAN the bacterial activity of the effluent of Kaatsheuvel golf park treatment plant was determined....