This study investigated the rainfall patterns, spatial variability, surface runoff generation and dam requirements in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. The region was divided into four areas Asir, Jazan, Al-Baha and the Red Sea Coast. Surface runoff was estimated for eight scenarios considering the runoff coefficients of 0.05–0.70, resulting in 203–2,835 million cubic meters (MCM) of runoff per year in this region. The runoff in the Asir, Jazan, Al-Baha and the Red Sea Coast were estimated to be in the ranges of 88–1,230, 53–738, 32–443 and 30–425 MCM per year, respectively. The capacities of the existing dams in Asir, Jazan and Al-Baha are approximately 373, 194 and 31 MCM, respectively, while the coast does not have any dam. A significant fraction of runoff is likely to be lost in each scenario of assessment. Water resources may be augmented through construction of new dams and/or wells in appropriate locations. However, better understanding is advisable on locations, water availability, surface evaporation in wadies and reservoirs, accumulation of solids in dam/reservoirs, hydraulic conductivity, economic burdens and national policy.
- IWA Publishing
- Augmentation of surface water sources from spatially distributed ...
Water mixing in waste lagoons
Man-made lagoons have been used worldwide for the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater, it seems, forever. All waste lagoons were first designed and thoughtfully planned considering their locations, soil makeup, and waste reduction processes prior to being implemented. The biological process of organic waste reduction is always a consideration of waste lagoon designs. There are three biological concepts considered for waste lagoons - Anaerobic lagoons, commonly at least 10 feet deep, have no dissolved...
Nitrate Analysis of Water Samples Using a Benchtop UV-Vis Spectrophotometer
Nitrogen is naturally found in groundwater and surface water in the form of nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level of nitrate-nitrogen in potable water of 10ppm. This application presents results of UV-Vis analysis of nitrate concentrations in drinking water, ground water, and industrial wastewater, showing that the manual colorimetric method is suitable for analysis of nitrate contamination in water systems. The data included is part of a data set being used to...
Photochemical fate of the vasodilator drug pentoxifylline in surface waters
This study is the first to comprehensively investigate the photochemical fate of pentoxifylline in natural water systems. Among all attenuation processes, indirect sunlight photolysis is very likely the primary process for pentoxifylline degradation. The combination of dissolved organic matter (represented by fulvic acid), NO3− and HCO3− closely simulated the photolysis rate in real surface water (Jingmei River, Taipei) (t1/2 = 34.7 ± 2.2 h), indicating that these three parameters are the most important determinant...
Supporting constructed wetlands in P removal efficiency from surface water
The research investigated the implementation of suspended reactive filters to support the phosphorus (P) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs). The reactive material (RM) used in this study was autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). The laboratory experiment consists of four plastic boxes filled with the volume of 10 L of artificial P solution with three variants of RM mass to volume ratio: 1:1 (g:L), 5:1 (g:L), 10:1 (g:L), and the blind probe 0:1 (g:L) as a reference. AAC of different weights (10, 50 and...
Impact of surface maintenance on BioSand filter performance and flow
The BioSand filter (BSF) is a household scaled, intermittently operated, slow sand filter. The BSF requires maintenance to remove trapped sediments. This study evaluated the effects of maintenance on the filter's flow rate and performance. Four concrete BSFs received three styles of maintenance: surface agitation (SA), stirring method (SM), and sand removal (SR). Effluent water was collected from the filter between 0–2 L effluent (0–2 L effluent) and between 15–20 L effluent (15 L+ effluent). After maintenance,...