IWA Publishing

Augmenting Water Supply Systems

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

Direct use of recycled water to augment urban water supply systems entails pumping water into the distribution system or blending with the conventional supply at the water treatment plant. The recycled water needs to be treated to drinking water standards or better, including advanced treatment processes to remove trace organics and chemicals.

The City of Windhoek in Namibia has employed direct use of recycled water to supplement its limited surface and groundwater supplies since 1968. The City added new advanced treatment process units to the treatment plant in 2002 to increase capacity to 21,000m3/day. The expanded plant supplies up to 35% of the drinking water supply in normal periods and up to 50% in dry periods.

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