Bacteroides bacteria and their bacteriophages
There are many sources that can contribute to fecal contamination in water bodies such as domestic wastewaters, wastewater treatment plants, husbandry and farms. Coliform bacteria are a group of bacteria that inhabit in the digestive tracts of human and warm-blooded animals. It can be found in human and animal feces. Therefore, the presence of coliform bacteria can indicate fecal contamination, which implies risk of pathogen presence. Many countries have developed water quality standards including biological standards. In Thailand, total coliform bacteria and fecal coliform bacteria are included in surface water quality standards (Table 1). However, the needs to obtain new fecal pollution indicators and/or to develop new detection methods have been emphasized worldwide, with increasing evidences that current fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) is not a good indicator for fecal pollution due to regrowth and non-host specific indication.
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