Benzene Health Issues: Leading & Lagging Indicators
Leading and lagging indicators
Health surveillance by conducting a urinary test or blood count can of course show evidence of exposure but these are lagging indicators i.e. after exposure has already taken place by which time damage may have been done.
A preferable leading indicator for benzene exposure would be to monitor using a real-time monitoring instrument such as a photoionisation detector.
These can be fixed, portable or personal devices depending on the application or a combination of all three for maximum worker protection.
A local and/or central alarm will indicate an unacceptably high concentration and alert workers to evacuate the area or to wear the appropriate respiratory protection.
Solid phase microextraction for trace analysis of urinary benzene in environmental monitoring
Due to increasing concern about toxic substances such as benzene and its analogs in the environment and workplaces, it is becoming more important to monitor such chemicals in order to evaluate risk hazards and potential problems caused by exposure to toxic compounds (Barcelo et al., 1991; Keymeulen et al., 2001; Sperlingova et al., 2003). Benzene is an important industrial compound because of its widespread usage, occurrence in mineral oil, and also in many combustion processes that cause environmental and...
Suggested Practice for Remediation of Highly Infectious Biological Agent Contamination in Indoor ...
Untitled Document PURPOSE This suggested practice describes those basic procedures to be followed, and precautions to be observed, when performing remediation and restoration of non-laboratory indoor environments known or suspected to harbor contamination from potentially infectious biological agents, especially those recognized as being easily aerosolized and thus presenting an inhalation risk. This would include contamination from potential biowarfare agents, i.e. weapons of mass destruction,...
The Future of Biowarfare
Untitled Document In the July issue of IE Connections, Tom Anderson of RestCon Environmental developed an excellent overview of the current biological weapons and response mechanisms. The next step is to present information about the future of biowarfare. What devious concoctions may be developed and used on future battlegrounds or terrorist attacks? What is the future of detection systems? Some of the answers to these questions are pure conjecture but are based on the current...
Aerobic and Anaerobic Bioremediation of 1,1-DCE and Vinyl Chloride in Groundwater
Untitled Document A three-tiered remediation approach is being used for successful field treatment of a 1,1- dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) groundwater plume. The plume is characterized by a chemical source area subject to anaerobic conditions (8.0 mg/L); an interior plume area of moderate aerobic (4.0 mg/L DO) and low chemical concentrations ( Previous studies from 1998 and early 1999 indicated that downgradient of the source area, elevated DO levels and intrinsic aerobically-degrading...
The EU Eco-Industry`s Export Potential
Executive Summary DGXI of the European Commission has commissioned this study to provide an analysis of current export activity by the EU eco-industry, the employment effects of this export activity, whether exports can be increased in the future and to develop appropriate policy recommendations for promoting EU eco-industry exports and related employment in the future. Objectives Specific objectives of the study are to: Identify the size and character of global environmental export markets. Assess the...
The Revised Personal Protective Equipment Standards for General Industry
Over the years, the OSHA Standard regarding personal protective equipment has changed as times have changed. Most recently, in the early 1990`s, OSHA conducted a comprehensive review of their Personal Protective Equipment Standard for General Industry. That study showed that the practices set forth in the existing regulation were outdated, and that they focused primarily on workplace issues of the 60`s and early 70`s. During the review of the regulation, OSHA found that a staggering number of accidents and...
Noise Monitors and Meters
Sound level meters Description and ApplicationsThe sound level meter is a lightweight instrument for the measurement of sound pressure level (SPL) in decibels. All ANSI-approved meters meet minimum requirements that include an A-weighted network, a slow-response meter characteristic, and a fully graduated scale with measurements ranging from 80 to 130 dBA. The Type II meter is most frequently used. Applications are in worker exposure and noise evaluations. Octave Band AnalyzerSome sound level meters may have...
Reduction of Waste from Synthetic Rubber Testing and Unreacted Styrene: Kemcor Australia
Kemcor Australia has used cleaner production processes to reduce waste from synthetic rubber testing and unreacted styrene in small batch production, with significant cost savings. Background Kemcor Australia is a leader in the production of olefins, poly-olefins and synthetic rubber, and is part of the Altona (Victoria) chemical complex, the largest centre for primary production of petrochemicals in Australia. Bass Strait oil and gas form the feedstock for its operations and the company supplies a large range...
Cleaner Production Demonstration Project at Moore Business Systems
Table of Contents Executive Summary 1. Review of Moore Business Systems Operations 2. Planning and Organisation of the Moore Business Systems 3. Cleaner Production Initiatives 4. Review of Project 5. Concluding Remarks 6. Moore Business Systems Perspective Executive Summary The Cleaner Production Demonstration Project (the Project) was an initiative of Environment Australia -Environment Protection Group (the EPG). The aim of the Project was to raise the awareness of Australian industry and actively...
Removal of Lead from Gasoline
On 12th March 1997, the European Commission adopted a proposal from the Environment Commissioner Ritt Bjerregaard on a European Union strategy to combat acidification. The strategy will, by 2010, reduce significantly the extent of the areas in the European Union where the tolerance of sensitive ecosystems to acidity is exceeded. Main elements of the strategy include establishment of national emission ceilings for each acid rain pollutant; ratification of the UN protocol on further reductions of sulphur emissions;...
Electrokinetics - Technology Overview
Electrokinetics separates and extracts contaminants from saturated or unsaturated soils, sludges and sediments, and groundwater. The goal of electrokinetic remediation is to effect the migration of subsurface contaminants in an imposed electric field via electroosmosis, electromigration and/or electrophoresis. These phenomena occur when the soil is electrically charged with a low voltage current. The fundamental configuration for all three processes involves the application of an electrical potential between...
Integrated Environmental Management in a German Brewery
Case Study Name of company: Neumarkter LammsbräuSector: BreweryNumber of employees: 80Country: Germany AbstractNeumarkter Lammsbräu is an 80-employee brewery located in Bavaria, a German region which has a strong tradition for beer. At the beginning of the 1970s, agriculture in the region became increasingly intensive. The quality of beer was being sacrificed for quick and high returns on sales. Neumarkter Lammsbräu wanted to safeguard the quality of its products and develop a strategy for success. The company...
Lead Dust Clearance Levels Guaranteed On-Site (PDF)
Removal, or abatement, of lead paint and leadpainted components, remains the primary method of eliminating lead hazards in U.S. residences. Following such abatement, a dwelling is cleaned and surfaces are wipe tested to assure lead dust levels are below acceptable limits. Achieving low lead dust levels is necessary prior to reoccupation, since surface lead dust can be the primary exposure route contributing to childhood lead poisoning.
Local Solutions with Federal Resources (PDF)
In-situ lead in soil tests are conducted using a NITON field portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer. Portable XRF analysis provides a means to perform a large number of relatively quick, ( insitu) measurements in order to extensively profile contamination patterns around a dwelling. include deteriorating outdoor leadbased paint, residual lead from leaded gasoline and pollution from nearby industrial facilities. In 1998 EPA launched a new program EMPACT to develop community- based assessment and remediation...
Minneapolis Offers Free Soil Testing to Raise Public Awareness of Lead Hazards
In 1998, the City of Minneapolis designed and implemented an innovative public outreach program to provide free access to soil testing for lead content to all Minneapolis residents. Soil testing kits were made available through local hardware stores, gardening centers and community groups. Citizens could either bring in samples to local merchants where city employees performed on-the-spot analysis with portable XRF, or used the sample kits to collect samples and send them to the city for analysis. The goal of...